To investigate the development of eccrine sweat glands and the expression of Foxa1 genes and proteins in the course of development, the footpads from E15.5 to E21.5, P1–P12, P14, P21, P28 and P56 rats were subjected to immunofluorescence staining of FoxA1 and double immunofluorescence staining of K14/α-SMA, FoxA1/K7 and FoxA1/α-SMA, and were processed for Foxa1 gene detection by RT-qPCR. The results showed that rat eccrine sweat gland germs was first observed emerging from the basal layer of epidermis at E19.5, and then elongated downward into the dermis, forming straight ducts by E21.5. Early development of the secretory segments appeared at P1. The Foxa1 gene was not expressed in rat footpads until P2, but from P2 to P5, its expression up-regulated sharply, and thereafter maintained at a high level until adulthood. FoxA1 protein was first observed at P6 in eccrine sweat glands, four days after initial detection of Foxa1 gene transcripts. In skin, FoxA1-positive cells were present exclusively in secretory coils, with 95% being K7-positive secretory cells and 5% being α-SMA-positive myoepithelial cells. We conclude that Foxa1 can be used as a marker of eccrine sweat glands in skin and also as a marker of secretory coils, and Foxa1 is related to the development of secretory coils.
Eccrine sweat glands Foxa1 Development K7 K14 α-SMA
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This manuscript was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81471882, 81071551), and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (2014A030313476).
Compliance with ethical standards
Competing of interest
We declare we have no competing financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations.
Cui CY, Childress V, Piao Y et al (2012) Forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 regulates sweat secretion through Bestrophin 2 anion channel and Na–K–Cl cotransporter 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:1199–1203CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Friedman JR, Kaestner KH (2006) The Foxa family of transcription factors in development and metabolism. Cell Mol Life Sci CMLS 63:2317–2328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kunisada M, Cui CY, Piao Y, Ko MS, Schlessinger D (2009) Requirement for Shh and Fox family genes at different stages in sweat gland development. Hum Mol Genet 18:1769–1778CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Li H, Li X, Zhang M et al (2015a) Three-dimensional co-culture of BM-MSCs and eccrine sweat gland cells in Matrigel promotes transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs. J Mol Histol 46:431–438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Li H, Zhang X, Zeng S et al (2015b) Combination of keratins and alpha-smooth muscle actin distinguishes secretory coils from ducts of eccrine sweat glands. Acta Histochem 117:275–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Li H, Zhang M, Chen L, Li X, Zhang B (2016a) Human eccrine sweat gland cells reconstitute polarized spheroids when subcutaneously implanted with Matrigel in nude mice. J Mol Histol 47:485–490CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Li M, Zhang W, Liu C et al. (2016b) Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) tagging polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk in a Chinese population: a fine-mapping study. Biomark Biochem Indic Expo Response Susceptibility Chem 21(6):523–529Google Scholar
Pristera A, Lin W, Kaufmann AK et al (2015) Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 maintain dopaminergic neuronal properties and control feeding behavior in adult mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:E4929–E4938CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Saga K (2002) Structure and function of human sweat glands studied with histochemistry and cytochemistry. Prog Histochem Cytochem 37:323–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wang W, Yi M, Chen S et al (2016) Significance of the NOR1-FOXA1/HDAC2-Slug regulatory network in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Oncotarget 7:16745–16759PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Whitington T, Gao P, Song W et al (2016) Gene regulatory mechanisms underpinning prostate cancer susceptibility. Nat Genet 48:387–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar