ACE2 and FZD1 are prognosis markers in squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of gallbladder
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The clinicopathological characteristics of squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma (SC/ASC) of the gallbladder have not been well documented, and no prognosis marker has been identified because of the rare occurrence of this gallbladder cancer subtype. In this study, we examined ACE2 and FZD1 expression in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 adenocarcinomas using immunohistochemistry and further analyzed their correlations with clinicopathological characteristics. We demonstrated that positive FZD1 and negative ACE2 expression were significantly associated with large tumor size, high TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and invasion of SC/ASC and AC. Univariate Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that positive FZD1 and negative ACE2 expression as well as differentiation, tumor size, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and surgical curability were closely associated with decreased overall survival in both SC/ASC (p < 0.001) and AC (p < 0.001) patients. The average survival time in SC/ASC and AC patients with FZD1−ACE2+ expression was significantly longer than that in patients with FZD1+ACE2− or FZD1+ACE2+ (p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive FZD1 and negative ACE2 expression are independent poor-prognostic factors for both SC/ASC and AC patients. In addition, FZD1 expression positively, but ACE2 expression negatively correlated with the expression of CA19-9 in SC/ASC and AC. Our study suggested that positive FZD1 and negative ACE2 expression are closely related to the expression of CA19-9; clinical, pathological, and biological behaviors; as well as poor-prognosis of gallbladder cancer.
KeywordsGallbladder cancer Adenocarcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma ACE2 FZD1 CA19-9 Prognosis Metastasis
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
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