Higher Education

, Volume 72, Issue 4, pp 457–486

Higher education decisions in Peru: on the role of financial constraints, skills, and family background


DOI: 10.1007/s10734-016-0040-x

Cite this article as:
Castro, J.F., Yamada, G. & Arias, O. High Educ (2016) 72: 457. doi:10.1007/s10734-016-0040-x


This paper analyzes the relative importance of short-term financial constraints vis-a-vis skills and other background factors when explaining higher education access in Peru. We focus on the disparities in university enrollment between rich and poor households. We use a novel household survey that includes special tests to measure cognitive and socio-emotional skills of the urban population age 14–50. These are complemented with retrospective data on basic education and family socioeconomic conditions in a multinomial model. We find that the strong correlation between university enrollment and family income in urban Peru is not only explained by short-term credit constraints, but also by poor cognitive skills and by family and educational backgrounds affecting tastes and aptitudes for formal education. Family income explains, at most, half of the university access gap between poor and non-poor households. The other half is related to differences in parental education, educational backgrounds, and cognitive skills. Our results indicate that credit or scholarship schemes alone will not suffice to change the regressive nature of higher education enrollment in Peru, and that such programs will face strong equity–efficiency trade-offs.


Higher education Cognitive skills Socio-emotional skills Peru 

JEL Classification

I23 I24 C35 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversidad del PacificoLimaPeru
  2. 2.World BankWashingtonUSA

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