This study examines the beliefs of supervisors and PhD candidates about higher degree supervision and three other academic domains: research; teaching; and learning. Interview data from 34 participants were categorised into four distinctive orientations to supervision, each consisting of a network (plexus) of beliefs about the four domains. Although each orientation comprised many beliefs, the orientations clearly differed in terms of two broad distinctions: whether the supervisor should direct and take responsibility for the research (controlling beliefs) or should guide the process (guiding beliefs), and whether the focus of supervision should be more upon the research tasks to be completed (task-focussed beliefs) or upon the development of the candidates (person-focussed beliefs). These distinctions, plus the types of interconnections between the beliefs comprising each orientation, support the conclusion that beliefs about teaching are central to each orientation, even though supervision is intimately concerned with research.
Keywordsbeliefs controlling guiding orientations person-focussed research higher degree (RHD) supervision task-focussed
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ainley, J. (2001). The 1999 Postgraduate Research Experience Questionnaire. Australian Council for Educational Research, Evaluations and Investigations Programme, Higher Education Division, DETYA: Commonwealth of Australia. Accessed May 2002. http://www.dest.gov.au/highered/eippubs.htm#01_4.
- Andresen, L. 1999‘Supervision revisited: Thoughts on scholarship, pedagogy and postgraduate research’Wisker, G.Sutcliffe, N. eds. Good Practice in Postgraduate Supervision. SEDA Paper 106Staff and Educational DevelopmentBirmingham2538Google Scholar
- Bair, C.R., Haworth, J.G. 2004‘Doctoral student attrition and persistence: A meta-synthesis of research’Smart, J. C. eds. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and ResearchKluwerDordrechtGoogle Scholar
- Becher, T., Trowler, P. 2001Academic Tribes and Territories2The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University PressBuckingham, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
- Becher, T., Henkel, M., Kogan, M. 1994Graduate Education in Britain, Higher Education Policy Series 17Jessica KingsleyLondonGoogle Scholar
- Bond, C. (2000). The Development of Students’ Experiences of Learning in Higher Education. Doctoral thesis, Griffith University, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
- Brockbank, A., McGill, I. 1998Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher EducationSRHE and OUPGuildford, UKGoogle Scholar
- Brown, G., Atkins, M. 1988Effective Teaching in Higher EducationMethuenLondonGoogle Scholar
- Burns R., Lamm, R. and Lewis, R. (1999). ‘Orientations to higher degree supervision: A study of supervisors and students in education’, in Holbrook, A. and Johnston, S. (eds.), Supervision of Postgraduate Research in Education. Australian Association for Research in Education, No. 5. Victoria, Australia: AARE, pp. 55–74Google Scholar
- Calderhead, J. 1996‘Teachers: beliefs and knowledge’Berliner, D.C. eds. Handbook of Educational PsychologyMacmillanNew York709725Google Scholar
- Connell, R.W. 1985‘How to supervise a PhD’Vestes23841Google Scholar
- Conrad, L. 1996‘A framework for evaluation of postgraduate supervision and support’Zuber-Skerritt, O. eds. Frameworks for Postgraduate EducationSouthern Cross University PressLismore, NSW4872Google Scholar
- Conrad, L. and Chipperfield, J. (2004). ‘Research Higher Degree Students’ Perceptions of their Learning’, paper presented at the Quality in Postgraduate Research Conference, Adelaide, 21–23 AprilGoogle Scholar
- Cullen, D.J., Pearson, M., Saha, L.J. and Spear, R.H. (1994). Establishing Effective PhD Supervision. Commonwealth of Australia: Higher Education Division, Evaluations and Investigations Program, ANUGoogle Scholar
- Exley, K., O’Malley, C. 1999‘Supervising PhDs in science and engineering’Wisker, G.Sutcliffe, N. eds. Good Practice in Postgraduate Supervision. SEDA Paper 106Staff and Educational DevelopmentBirmingham3956Google Scholar
- Gow, L., Kember, D. 1993‘Conceptions of teaching and their relationship to learning’British Journal of Educational Psychology632033Google Scholar
- Green, B. and Lee, A. (1995/1998). ‘Theorising postgraduate pedagogy’, in Lee, A. and Green, B. (eds.), Postgraduate Studies, Postgraduate Pedagogy. Centre for Language and Literacy, Faculty of Education, UTS and University Graduate School, University of Technology, Sydney, pp. 129–146Google Scholar
- Green, B., Lee, A. 1999‘Educational research, disciplinarity and postgraduate pedagogy: On the subject of supervision’Holbrook, A.Johnston, S. eds. Supervision of Postgraduate Research in EducationAAREVictoria, Australia207223No. 5Google Scholar
- Hativa, N. 2002‘Becoming a better teacher: A case of changing the pedagogical knowledge of law professors’Hativa, N.Goodyear, P. eds. Teacher Thinking, Beliefs and Knowledge in Higher EducationKluwer AcademicDordrecht, Netherlands289319Google Scholar
- Holdaway, E. 1997a‘Quality issues in postgraduate education’Burgess, R. eds. Beyond the First Degree: Graduate Education, Lifelong Learning and CareersSociety for Research into Higher Education and OPUBuckingham6177Google Scholar
- Holdaway, E. (1997b). How Does the Australian PhD Stack up Against the North American PhD? Address given at Graduate School Forum, Australian National University, Canberra, 14 MayGoogle Scholar
- Horschette, J. 1994Career Advancement and Survival for EngineersJohn Wiley and Sons, Wiley-InterscienceNew YorkGoogle Scholar
- Johnson, L., Lee, A., Green, B. 2000‘The PhD and the autonomous self: Gender, rationality and postgraduate pedagogy’Studies in Higher Education25136147Google Scholar
- Kane, R., Sandretto, S., Heath, C. 2002‘Telling half the story: A critical review of research on the teaching beliefs and practices of university academics’Review of Educational Research72177228Google Scholar
- Kemp, D.A. (2002). Higher Education Report for the 2002–2004 Triennium. DEST. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training. Accessed September 2003. http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/highered/he_report/2002_2004/html/contents.htm.
- Knowles, M. 1990The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species4HoustonGulfGoogle Scholar
- Kvale, S. 1996Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research InterviewingSageThousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
- Latona, K. and Browne, M. (2001). ‘Factors associated with successful completion of research higher degrees’, Higher Education Series Report No. 37, May. Canberra: DETYA Higher Education Division, Communications UnitGoogle Scholar
- Lee, A. and Green, B. (eds.). (1998). ‘Introduction’, in Lee, A. and Green, B. (eds.), Postgraduate Studies, Postgraduate Pedagogy. Centre for Language and Literacy, Faculty of Education, UTS and University Graduate School, University of Technology, Sydney, pp. 1–8Google Scholar
- Love, A. and Street, A. (1998). ‘Supervision as collaborative problem-solving: An integrative approach to postgraduate research education’, in Kiley, M. and Mullins, G. (eds.), Quality in Postgraduate Research: Managing the New Agenda. Proceedings of the 1998 Quality in Postgraduate Research Conference. Adelaide, pp. 149–159Google Scholar
- Macauley, P. (2001). Doctoral Research and Scholarly Communication: Candidates, Supervisors and Information Literacy. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Education, Deakin University, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- McWilliam, E. (ed.). (2002). Doctoral education in a knowledge economy [Special issue]. Higher Education Research and Development, 21(2)Google Scholar
- Martin, Y.M., Maclachlan, M. and Karmel, T. (2001). Postgraduate Completion Rates. Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DETYA), 2001D, Occasional Paper Series, Higher Education Division, Commonwealth of Australia. Accessed April, 2002. http://www.dest.gov.au/highered/occpaper.htm#00g.
- Neumann, R. (2003). The Doctoral Education Experience: Diversity and Complexity. DEST, Evaluations and Investigations Programme. Accessed September 2003. http://www.detya.gov.au/highered/eippubs/eip03_12/default.htm.
- Nespor, J. 1987‘The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching’Journal of Curriculum Studies19317328Google Scholar
- Parry, S., Hayden, M. 1994Supervising Higher Degree Research StudentsDEETCanberraGoogle Scholar
- Pearse, H. (2002). Implementing the Research Training Scheme: The consequences for postgraduate research students. CAPA Research Paper, November 2003: Council of Australian Postgraduate Associations. Accessed October 2003. http://www.capa.edu.au/frameset.html?./papers/index.html.
- Pearson, M. 1999‘The changing environment for doctoral education in Australia: Implications for quality management, improvement and innovation’Higher Education Research and Development18269286Google Scholar
- Phillips, E., Pugh, D.H. 1994How to Get a PhD: A Handbook for Students and Their Supervisors2OUPBuckingham, EnglandGoogle Scholar
- Pole, C., Sprokkereef, A., Burgess, R., Lakin, E. 1997‘Supervision of doctoral students in the natural sciences: Expectations and experiences’Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education224963Google Scholar
- Prosser, M., Trigwell, K. 1999Understanding Learning and Teaching: The Experience in Higher EducationSHRE and OUPBuckingham, EnglandGoogle Scholar
- Quinlan, K. (1997). ‘Case studies of academics’ educational beliefs about their discipline: Toward a discourse on scholarly dimensions of teaching’, Proceedings, HERSDA International Conference, Adelaide, pp. 620–625Google Scholar
- Ramsden, P., Ginns, P. and Conrad, L. (2004). ‘Associations between research students’ experiences and learning outcomes’. 12th Improving Student Learning Symposium, Birmingham, UK, 6–8 SeptemberGoogle Scholar
- Samuelowicz, K. (1999). Academics’ Educational Beliefs and Teaching Practices. Doctoral dissertation. Griffith University, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
- Shannon, A.G. 1998‘Research degree supervision: “More mentor than master”’Lee, A.Green, B. eds. Postgraduate Studies, Postgraduate PedagogyUTS, Faculty of Education, Centre for Language and Literacy and University Graduate SchoolSydney3141Google Scholar
- Smith, B. 2001‘(Re)framing research degree supervision as pedagogy’Bartlett, A.Mercer, G. eds. Postgraduate Research Supervision: Transforming (R)elationsPeter LangNew York2541Google Scholar
- Strauss, A., Corbin, J. 1998Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory2SageThousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
- Whittle, J. 1992‘Research culture, supervision practices’Zuber-Skerritt, O. eds. Starting Research – Supervision and TrainingTertiary Education Institute, University of QueenslandBrisbane86107Google Scholar
- Wisker, G. 1999‘Introduction: Changes in postgraduates, changes in good practice in supervision and instructional support’Wisker, G.Sutcliffe, N. eds. Good Practice in Postgraduate Supervision SEDA Paper 106Staff and Educational DevelopmentBirmingham56Google Scholar
- Wisker, G. (2000). ‘Postgraduate learning styles and enabling practices: A multicultural action research study’, in Kiley, M. and Mullins, G. (eds.). Making Ends Meet. Proceedings of the 2nd Postgraduate Experience Conference, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
- Zuber-Skerritt, O. eds. 1992Starting Research – Supervision and TrainingTertiary Education Institute, University of QueenslandBrisbaneGoogle Scholar
- Zuber-Skerritt, O.Ryan, Y. eds. 1994Quality in Postgraduate EducationKogan PageLondonGoogle Scholar