HEC Forum

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 13–32 | Cite as

Medical Futility: A Paradigm Analysis



Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Moral Standing Persistent Vegetative State Moral Person Artificial Nutrition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altman, K.J. (1993). Drug mixture curbs HIV in lab, doctors report, but urge caution. New York Times. February 18, 1993, A1.Google Scholar
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics (1994). Guidelines on foregoing lifesustaining medical treatment. Pediatrics, 93(3), 532-536.Google Scholar
  3. American Thoracic Society Bioethics Task Force (1991). Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 115(6), 478-485.Google Scholar
  4. Baranauckas, C. (2004). Florida judge overturns law in right-to-die case. New York Times. May 6, 2004.Google Scholar
  5. Bedell S.E., Delbanco T.L., Cook F. et al. (1983). Survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital. New England Journal of Medicine 309(10): 569-575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bedell S.E., Pelle D., Maher P.L. et al. (1986). Do-not-resuscitate orders for critically ill patients in the hospital: How are they used and what is their impact?. Journal of the American Medical Association 256(2): 233- 237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackhall L.J. (1987). Must we always use CPR? New England Journal of Medicine 317(20): 1281-1285Google Scholar
  8. Blackhall L.J., Ziogas A., Azen S.P. (1992). Low survival rate after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a county hospital. Archives of Internal Medicine 152(10): 2045-2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brett A.S., McCullough L.B. (1986). When patients request specific interventions: Defining the limits of the physician’s obligation. New England Journal of Medicine 315(21): 1347-1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clayton E.W. (1995). Commentary: What is really at stake in Baby K? A response to Ellen Flannery. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23(1): 13-14Google Scholar
  11. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association (1991). Guidelines for the appropriate use of do-not-resuscitate orders. Journal of the American Medical Association 265(14), 1868-1871.Google Scholar
  12. Cranford R.E. (1991). Helga Wanglie’s ventilator. Hastings Center Report 21(4): 23-24Google Scholar
  13. Flannery E.J. (1995). One advocate’s viewpoint: conflicts and tensions in the baby k case. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23(1): 7-12Google Scholar
  14. Freer J.P. (1992). Discussion of brain-death case. Hastings Center Report 3(1): 78-79Google Scholar
  15. Goodnough, A. (2004). Court voids law keeping woman alive. New York Times. September 24, 2004, pp. A1, A24.Google Scholar
  16. Greenhouse, L. (1993). Hospital appeals decision ordering treatment for baby missing a brain. New York Times. September 24, 1993.Google Scholar
  17. Hastings Center (1987). Guidelines on the termination of life-sustaining treatment and the care of the dying. Bloomington: IN, Indiana University PressGoogle Scholar
  18. Hospital care ordered for girl missing most of brain (1994). Seattle Times. February 12, 1994. [On-line] Available: http://archives.seattletimes. nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=1894836 &date = 19940212& query =hospital.
  19. Hospital fights parents’ wish to keep life support for a ‘brain dead’ child (1994). New York Times. February 12, 1994. [On-line] Available: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CE4D61338F931A25 751C0A962958260&sec=health&pagewanted=2.
  20. Jecker N.S. (1990). Anencephalic infants and special relationships. Theoretical Medicine 11(4): 333-342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jecker N.S. (1995). Futile treatment and the ethics of medicine. Report from the Institute for Philosophy & Public Policy 15(1): 10-14Google Scholar
  22. Jonsen A.R., Toulmin S. (1988). The abuse of casuistry: a history of moral reasoning. Berkeley, CA, University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Kolata, G. (1994). Battle over a baby’s future raises hard ethical issues. New York Times. December 27, 1994, A1, A9.Google Scholar
  24. Lantos J.D., Miles S.H., Silverstein M.D. et al. (1998). Survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in babies of very low birth weight: Is CPR futile therapy?. New England Journal of Medicine 318(2): 91-95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lo B., Saika G., Strull W., et al. (1985). ‘Do not resuscitate’ decisions: a prospective study at three teaching hospitals. Archives of Internal Medicine 145: 1115-1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murphy D.J., Murray A.M., Robinson B.E. et al. (1989). Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly. Annals of Internal Medicine 111(3): 199-205Google Scholar
  27. Miles S.H. (1991) Informed medical demand for ’non-beneficial’ medical treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 325(7): 512-515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1983). Deciding to Forego Lifesustaining Treatment. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  29. Rie M.A. (1991). The limits of a wish. Hastings Center Report 21(4): 24- 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schneiderman L.J., Jecker N.S. (1996). Is the treatment beneficial, experimental, or futile?. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5(2): 248-256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schneiderman L., Jecker N., Jonsen A. (1990). Medical futility: its meaning and ethical implications. Annals of Internal Medicine 112(12): 949-954Google Scholar
  32. In the matter of Karen Quinlan: The Supreme Court, State of New Jersey (1976). In: A.R. Jonsen, R.M. Veatch & L. Walters (eds.) (1998). Source book in bioethics: A documentary history. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 143-148.Google Scholar
  33. Taffet G.E., Teasdale T.A., Luchi R.J. (1988). In-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Journal of the American Medical Association 260(14): 2069-2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Task Force on Ethics of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (1990). Consensus report on the ethics of foregoing life-sustaining treatments in the critically ill. Critical Care Medicine, 18(12), 1435-1439.Google Scholar
  35. Robert M. Veatch, quoted in L Greenhouse. Hospital appeals decision ordering treatment for baby missing a brain. New York Times. September 24, 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical History and EthicsUniversity of Washington, School of MedicineSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations