Using discrete event simulation to design a more efficient hospital pharmacy for outpatients
- 927 Downloads
We present the findings of a discrete event simulation study of the hospital pharmacy outpatient dispensing systems at two London hospitals. Having created a model and established its face validity, we tested scenarios to estimate the likely impact of changes in prescription workload, staffing levels and skill-mix, and utilisation of the dispensaries’ automatic dispensing robots. The scenarios were compared in terms of mean prescription turnaround times and percentage of prescriptions completed within 45 min. The findings are being used to support business cases for changes in staffing levels and skill-mix in response to changes in workload.
KeywordsHealth care Hospitals Pharmacy dispensary Simulation
We would like to thank the dispensary staff and management at both hospital sites. We also would like to thank Martin Utley, Clinical Operational Research Unit, University College London for advice on many aspects of the study and Anand Pankhania, The School of Pharmacy, University of London for assistance with data collection.
This project was partly funded by a grant from the Hammersmith Hospitals Trustees' Research Committee. The Clinical Operational Research Unit receives funding from the Department of Health Policy Research Programme. The Centre for Medication Safety and Service Quality is affiliated with the Centre for Patient Safety and Service Quality at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust which is funded by the National Institute of Health Research.
- 2.Jun JB, Jacobson SH, Swisher JR (1999) Application of discrete-event simulation in health care clinics: a survey. J Oper Res Soc 50:109–123Google Scholar
- 5.Dean B, Gallivan S, Barber ND, van Ackere A (1997) Mathematical modeling of pharmacy systems. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 54:2491–2499Google Scholar
- 8.Harris HD, Uyeno DH (1973) Hospital pharmacy simulation and its use in the inpatient dispensary. Am J Hosp Pharm 30:511–517Google Scholar
- 9.Ishimoto K, Ishimitsu T, Koshiro A, Hirose S (1990) Computer simulation of optimum personnel assignment in hospital pharmacy using a work-sampling method. Med Inf (Lond) 15:343–354Google Scholar
- 14.Robinson S (2004) Simulation: the practice of model development and use. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- 15.Altman DG, Machin D, Bryant TN, Gardner MJ (2000) Statistics with confidence, 2nd edn. BMJ Books, LondonGoogle Scholar