Group Decision and Negotiation

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 299–323 | Cite as

Using Fuzzy Preference Method for Group Package Tour Based on the Risk Perception

  • Tsuen-Ho Hsu
  • Ling-Zhong Lin


This study explores group package tour (GPT) itineraries based on comparative risk methodology using the fuzzy Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE). It combines the concepts of fuzzy sets to represent the uncertain information in intrinsic risks with PROMETHEE, a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Making methods. Based on in-depth interviews with 40 GPT leaders, this study identifies comprehensive intrinsic risk factors. Furthermore, this study compares the risk perceptions associated with 12 factors by applying traditional PROMETHEE and fuzzy PROMETHEE methods to four itineraries. The PROMETHEE method can be used when the input data are numeric and crisp. The fuzzy PROMETHEE method is preferred when substantial uncertainties and subjectivities exist in GPT itinerary information. Finally, several academic and managerial implications about GPT tour risk controls are outlined.


Fuzzy PROMETHEE Group package tour Risk perception 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marketing and Distribution ManagementNational Kaohsiung First University of Science and TechnologyKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Marketing ManagementShih Chien University Kaohsiung CampusNeimenTaiwan

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