Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 85, Issue 2, pp 317–327 | Cite as

Isolation, expression, and evolution analysis of the type 2C protein phosphatase gene BcABI1 involved in abiotic and biotic stress in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis

  • Lijun Kong
  • Hang Deng
  • Shuai Hu
  • Fangzhan Wang
  • Liming Miao
  • Chaoquan Chen
  • Kun Zhao
  • Xiaolin Yu
Original paper


Type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) is an important component of protein phosphatases involved in various biological processes, such as plant growth and development, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, and environmental stress response. ABI1 (ABA insensitive 1), a member of the PP2C gene family, is a negative regulator in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction possibly related to stress tolerance, but ABI1 in economical plants is poorly understood. In this study, BcABI1 was isolated from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris (syn. B. rapa) L. ssp. chinensis (L) Makino] and 23 other cruciferous plants. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted according to the gene sequence of AtABI1 in Arabidopsis. Three introns are present in ABI1 genes encoding 400–437 amino acids. Multiple alignment of the sequences of 24 ABI1 genes showed that the ABI1 homologous genes of cruciferous plants were highly conserved. Meanwhile, the Ka/Ks values were obtained from orthologous gene pairs between the At genome and other crucifer crop genomes, and results showed that the natural selective pressures on these genes were purifying selection. Subsequently, the structure and expression profiles of BcABI1 were examined under abiotic and biotic stresses. BcABI1 presented a constitutive expression pattern, participating in wound stress and NaCl stress responses, and also induced by biotic stress in Chinese cabbage inoculated with Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. A significant difference between the pathogenic ability of the two bacteria can be observed, and the S. sclerotiorum caused faster pathogenesis. These results could help to elucidate the function of BcABI1 in plant growth and stress response, and gain valuable insights into Chinese cabbage breeding for the improvement of multiple-stress-tolerance.


Chinese cabbage PP2C ABI1 ABA Abiotic stress Biotic stress 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Gang Lu for his helpful advice and thank Dr. Zhenning Liu, in particular, for the stimulating discussions and critical reading of the manuscript.

Author contributions

XY and SH proposed and designed the research. SH, FW and LK performed the experiment under abiotic and biotic stresses. LM, ZK and LK performed the statistical analyses, interpretation of experimental results. CC and DH performed the qRT-PCR analysis. LK and SH wrote the manuscript. LK, HD and XY revised the manuscript.


This work was partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0100204-31), the 948 Project of Agricultural Ministry of China (2014-Z28), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31460521), the Breeding Project of the Sci-tech Foundation of Zhejiang Province (2016C02051-6-1), the Project of the Sci-tech Foundation of Ningbo City(2015C110008), and the Project of Application on Public Welfare Technology in Zhejiang Province(LGN18C150003).

Compliance with ethical standards


The authors declare that they have no financial interests.

Supplementary material

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Supplemental Fig. 1 Full-length cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of BcABI1 in Chinese cabbage. (TIF 141338 KB)
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Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 47 KB)
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Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 252 KB)
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Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 160 KB)
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Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 59 KB)
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Supplemental Fig. 6 Phylogenetic tree based on ABI1 homologous sequences in Cruciferous plants. (TIF 68041 KB)
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Supplementary material 7 (DOCX 93 KB)
10725_2018_399_MOESM8_ESM.tif (46.2 mb)
Supplemental Fig. 8 Ka/Ks values of BcABI1, BoABI1, BnABI1 and RsABI1 with their orthologous gene AtABI1 over a sliding window of 20 codons. The x-axis indicates the starting codon of sliding window. The y-axis shows the Ka/Ks values. (TIF 47359 KB)
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Supplementary material 9 (DOCX 16 KB)
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Supplementary material 10 (XLSX 10 KB)
10725_2018_399_MOESM11_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 11 (DOCX 15 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lijun Kong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hang Deng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuai Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fangzhan Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Liming Miao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chaoquan Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kun Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaolin Yu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Vegetable ScienceZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development, and Quality Improvement, Ministry of AgricultureZhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Integrative BiologyHangzhouChina

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