Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 81, Issue 2, pp 197–207 | Cite as

Phospholipase D family and its expression in response to abiotic stress in maize

  • Lei Chen
  • Bo Cao
  • Nan Han
  • Yi Tao
  • Shu Feng Zhou
  • Wan Chen Li
  • Feng Ling Fu
Original paper


Phospholipase D hydrolyzes phospholipids into phophatidic acid and choline, and plays important roles in growth, development, and stress response. Genome-wide identification for the PLD gene family has been made in several model species. In maize, only a few literatures are available for cloning and function elucidation of several individual members of the PLD gene family. In this study, thirteen members of the ZmPLD gene family were identified from the maize genome by homologous alignment and conserved domain analysis. Bioinformatics analysis displayed abundant diversification of the gene structure, and differential expression patterns in different development stages and organs among these members, as well as numerous cis-acting elements during their promoter sequences. The expression of these members in seedling shoot and root under abiotic stress and hormone induction was detected by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The result showed significant differentiation of their relative expression levels in response to stress of drought, high salt, and low temperature, and to induction of abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, and gibberellic acid. All these results suggest that structure and function of the ZmPLD gene family are diversified among the members, as well as different from the genetic model species such as Arabidopsis and rice. Laboratory experiment should be conducted to elucidate their detail functions one by one.


Abiotic stress Differential expression Gene family Hormone Phospholipase D 



This work was supported by the National Key Science and Technology Special Project (2014ZX08003-004), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31071433). The authors thank the technical support from Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, and appreciate the anonymous reviewers for their critical comments and modification suggestions, and Mr. Aleix Martinez at University of California Berkeley for his help in improving the English writing.

Supplementary material

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Fig. S1: Flowchart of bioinformatics analysis of the ZmPLD gene family. The amino acid sequences of the twelve and seventeen members of the PLD families in Arabidopsis and rice were used as queries to search for homologous sequences against Maize GDB database. After elimination of redundant sequences by using a custom Perl program, the conserved domains of the PLD family were identified from the homologous sequences by using the online tools SMART and PFAM. The objects were recognized as the members of the ZmPLD gene family, and used to construct phylogenetic tree with the members of the AtPLD and the OsPLD gene families by using MEGA5.1. The gene structure was analyzed by using the online software GSDS. The cis-acting regulatory elements were searched from the 1500 bp sequences upstream of the start codon ATG of these thirteen members of the ZmPLD gene family by using PlantCARE software. The expression patterns of these thirteen members in different development stages and different organs were analyzed by using transcriptome analysis software MEV4.0 against Maize GDB database and qteller database. (JPG 80 KB)
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Maize Research InstituteSichuan Agricultural UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China

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