Variable responses of soybean chitinases to arsenic and cadmium stress at the whole plant level
- 342 Downloads
Plant chitinases (EC 184.108.40.206) are considered as typical defense components under various environmental stresses, including heavy metals. In addition, some of them play crucial role in normal plant growth and development. In this work the profile and activities of these enzymes were analyzed to study the variability of defense within soybean plants. For this, two cultivars with contrasting tolerance to metals were exposed to ecologically relevant doses of arsenic and cadmium. Enzyme profiles revealed a spatial distribution of chitinase activities throughout the individual plants, tending to decrease upwards to the top of the plants. Under metal stress, there was a single responsive isoform detected in roots that behaved opposingly in the studied soybean cultivars. In contrast, several isoforms were activated in aboveground tissue, predominantly in mature (older) leaves. Of these, two were identified (21 and 42 kDa) as more specifically involved in defense against metal stress in soybean. The 21 kDa isoform was concluded as possibly contributing to metal tolerance and deserves further investigations at molecular level. Nevertheless, no sound interaction was detected between leaf developmental stage and responsiveness to metals for either of the chitinase isoforms. Further studying the distribution of induced defense within plants is important in understanding the defense strategy of plants against environmental cues including metals.
KeywordsInducible defense Developmental stage Metal Spatial distribution of defense
Soybean seeds were provided by Bóly Agricultural Production and Trade Ltd., Hungary and Matex, s.r.o. (Veškovce, Veľké Kapušany, Slovakia). The work was supported by grants from the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic and the Academy of Sciences VEGA No. 2/0090/14 and 1/0509/12. The authors also acknowledge support of the COST FA1306.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflict of interest.
- Board JE, Kahlon CS (2011) Soybean yield formation: what controls it and how it can be improved. In: El-Shemy HA (ed) Soybean physiology and biochemistry. InTech, Rijeka, pp 1–36Google Scholar
- Dobroviczká T, Piršelová B, Mészáros P, Blehová A, Libantová J, Moravčiková J, Matušíková I (2013) EffectS of cadmium and arsenic ions on content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of Glycine max (L.) Merrill. Pak J Bot 45:105–110Google Scholar
- Halušková L, Valentovičová K, Huttová J, Mistrík I, Tamás L (2010) Effect of heavy metals on root growth and peroxidase activity in barley root tip. Acta Biol Plant 32:59–65Google Scholar
- Konotop Y, Meszaros P, Spiess N, Mistrikova V, Pirselova B, Libantova J, Moravcikova J, Taran N, Hauptvogel P, Matusikova I (2012) Defense responses of soybean roots during exposure to cadmium, excess of nitrogen supply and combinations of these stressors. Mol Biol Rep 39:10077–10087CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Küpper H, Mijovilovich A, Meyer-Klaucke W, Kroneck PMH (2004) Tissue- and age-dependent differences in the complexation of cadmium and zinc in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype) revealed by X-ry absorption spectroscopy. Plant Physiol 134:748–757CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Piršelová B, Matušíková I (2011) Plant defense against heavy metals: the involvement of pathogenesis—related (PR) proteins. In: Mechanism and action of phytoconstituents, pp 179–205Google Scholar
- Qiu J, Hallmann J, Kokalis-Burelle N, Weaver DB, Rodríguez-Kábana R, Tuzun S (1997) Activity and differential induction of chitinase isozymes in soybean cultivars resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. J Nematol 29:523–530Google Scholar
- Schmutz J, Cannon SB, Schlueter J, Ma J, Mitros T, Nelson W, Hyten DL, Song Q, Thelen JJ, Cheng J, Xu D, Hellsten U, May GD, Yu Y, Sakurai T, Umezawa T, Bhattacharyya MK, Sandhu D, Valliyodan B, Lindquist E, Peto M, Grant D, Shu S, Goodstein D, Barry K, Futrell-Griggs M, Abernathy B, Du J, Tian Z, Zhu L, Gill N, Joshi T, Libault M, Sethuraman A, Zhang XC, Shinozaki K, Nguyen HT, Wing RA, Cregan P, Specht J, Grimwood J, Rokhsar D, Stacey G, Shoemaker RC, Jackson SA (2010) Genome sequence of the palaeopolyploid soybean. Nature 463:178–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Skórzyńska-Polit E, Bednara J, Baszyński T (1995) Some aspects of runner bean plant response to cadmium at different stages of the primary leaf growth. Acta Soc Bot Pol 64:165–170Google Scholar
- Trapnell C, Williams BA, Pertea G, Mortazavi A, Kwan G, van Baren MJ, Salzberg SL, Wold BJ, Pachter L (2010) Transcript assembly and quantification by RNA-Seq reveals unannotated transcripts and isoform switching during cell differentiation. Nat Biotechnol 28:U174–U511Google Scholar
- Xie ZP, Staehelin C, Wiemken A, Broughton WJ, Müller J, Boller T (1999) Symbiosis-stimulated chitinase isoenzymes of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). J Exp Bot 50:327–333Google Scholar
- Yu XM, Guo SX (2000) Progress on plant chitinase induced by fungi. Prog Biochem Biophys 27:43–44Google Scholar