Advertisement

Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 657–666 | Cite as

Elimination of gibberellin from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed sap foliar spray enhances corn stover production without compromising the grain yield advantage

  • Dibyendu Mondal
  • Arup Ghosh
  • Kamalesh Prasad
  • Sarnam Singh
  • Nidhi Bhatt
  • S. T. Zodape
  • Jai Prakash Chaudhary
  • Jayesh Chaudhari
  • Pabitra B. Chatterjee
  • Abhiram Seth
  • Pushpito K. Ghosh
Original Paper

Abstract

Sustainable intensification of agricultural productivity is a global challenge. The sap of the commercially important red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, has been of interest in this regard, and its application as foliar spray has had a profound impact on the yields of many crops. It has been shown to contain indole acetic acid, kinetin, zeatin and gibberellic acid (GA3) but no study is yet reported on the interactions among these constituents, if any. In the present study, selective solvent extraction was undertaken to obtain GA3-free and indole acetic acid-free sap compositions. Another composition was prepared by autoclaving the sap which resulted in degradation of all the above growth hormones. The sap variants, along with water spray (control) and pristine sap, were applied on Zea mays as foliar spray over three consecutive seasons in dilute form. The four sap treatments were at par with one another—and significantly superior to control treatment—in so far as grain yield and quality were concerned. Pristine sap was subsequently shown to also contain choline and glycine betaine, and these were detected in similar amounts in all the sap variants, apparently indicating their profound influence on grain yield. Another important observation was that GA3-free sap led to heightened photosynthetic activity which translated into 26 % increase in corn stover yield compared to pristine sap. This is hypothesized to be on account of prevention of negative interactions between GA3 and other hormones. The study constitutes the first report of enhancement of performance of a natural seaweed plant stimulant towards increasing plant growth through simplification of its composition.

Keywords

Kappaphycus alvarezii sap Gibberellin removal Effect on maize Enhanced photosynthesis Grain and corn stover yield 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the referees for valuable suggestions. CSIR, New Delhi is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this project. We wish to thank Mr. A. K. Das for providing mass spectral data, Mr. C. Paliwal for measurement of calorific values, Mr. C. Jambucha for assistance with data collection, Dr. K. Eswaran for providing pristine sap, and Mr. K. Chokshi for assistance in compilation of manuscript. Dr P. K. Agarwal and Mr. K. G. Vijayanand are acknowledged for helpful discussions. The Universities and Institutes of BCKV, RAU, PSB, ICAR-NEHR, GKVK, MPUAT, CCHAU, TNAU and BAU are acknowledged for sharing data on field trials with pristine sap on maize. DM thanks CSIR for award of NET Fellowship.

Supplementary material

10725_2014_9967_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (309 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 309 kb)

References

  1. Agboma PC, Jones MGK, Peltonen-Sainio P, Rita H, Pehu E (1997) Exogenous glycinebetaine enhances grain yield of maize, sorghum and wheat grown under two supplementary watering regimes. J Agron Crop Sci 17:29–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-037X.1997.tb00348.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blunden G (1977) Cytokinin activity of seaweed extracts. In: Faulkner DJ, Fenical WH (eds) Marine natural products chemistry. Plenum, New York, pp 337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blunden G, Jenkins T, Liu YW (1996) Enhanced leaf chlorophyll levels in plants treated with seaweed extract. J Appl Phycol 8:535–543. doi: 10.1007/BF02186333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borlaug N (2007) Feeding a hungry world. Science 318:359. doi: 10.1126/science.1151062 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Craigie JS (2011) Seaweed extract stimuli in plant science and agriculture. J Appl Phycol 23(3):371–393. doi: 10.1007/s10811-010-9560-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dasilva E, Jensen A (1973) Benthic marine and blue–green algal species as a source of choline. J Sci Food Agric 24:855–861. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.2740240715 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PT, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356. doi: 10.1021/ac60111a017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eswaran K, Ghosh PK, Siddhanta AK et al (2005) U.S. Patent No. 6,893,479. Washington: U.S. Patent and Trademark OfficeGoogle Scholar
  10. Finnie JF, Van Staden J (1985) Effect of Seaweed Concentrate and applied hormones on in vitro cultured tomato roots. J Plant Physiol 120:215–222. doi: 10.1016/S0176-1617(85)80108-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fleishon S, Shani E, Ori N, Weiss D (2011) Negative reciprocal interactions between gibberellin and cytokinin in tomato. New Phytol 190:609–617. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03616.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Franks PJ, Beerling DJ (2009) Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. PNAS 106:10343–10347. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0904209106 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghosh PK, Ghosh A, Mondal D, Prasad K, Agarwal PK, Agarwal P, Zodape ST, Vijay Anand KG (2014) Gibberellic acid (GA3) free Kappaphycus alvarezii sap and its application thereof. PCT patent application No. PCT/IN2014/000224Google Scholar
  14. Godina B, Lamaudière S, Agneessens R et al (2013) Chemical characteristics and biofuel potential of several vegetal biomasses grown under a wide range of environmental conditions. Ind Crop Prod 48:1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenboim-Wainberg Y, Maymon I, Borochov R, Alvarez J, Olszewski N, Ori N, Esed Y, Weiss D (2005) Cross talk between Gibberellin and cytokinin: the Arabidopsis GA response inhibitor SPINDLY plays a positive role in cytokinin signalling. Plant cell 17:92–102. doi: 10.1105/tpc.104.028472
  16. Guinn EJ, Pegram LM, Capp MW, Pollock MN, Record MT (2011) Quantifying why urea is a protein denaturant, whereas glycine betaine is a protein stabilizer. PNAS 108:16932–16937. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1109372108 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Incharoensakdi A, Takabe T, Akazawa T (1986) Effect of betaine on enzyme activity and subunit interaction of ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Aphanothece halophytica. Plant Physiol 81:1044–1049CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kerckhoffs H, Renquist R (2013) Biofuel from plant biomass. Agron Sustain Dev 33:1–19. doi: 10.1007/s13593-012-0114-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khan W, Rayirath UP, Subramanian S et al (2009) Seaweed extracts as biostimulants of plant growth and development. J Plant Growth Regul 28:386–399. doi: 10.1007/s00344-009-9103-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Layek J, Ramkrushna GI, Das A, Ghosh A, Krishnappa, R, Panwar AS, Azad Thakur NS, Ngachan SV, Zodape ST, Buragohain J, Mawlong B (2014) Seaweed sap as organic bio-stimulant for rice and maize production. Research Bulletin No. 82 Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam—79103, Meghalaya, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  21. MacKinnon SL, Hiltz D, Ugarte R, Craft CA (2010) Improved methods of analysis for betaines in Ascophyllum nodosum and its commercial seaweed extracts. J Appl Phycol 22:489–494. doi: 10.1007/s10811-009-9483-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maekawa T, Maekawa-Yoshikawa M, Imaizumi-Anraku H, Murooka Y, Hayashi M (2009) Gibberellin controls the nodulation signalling pathway in Lotus japonicas. Plant J 58:183–194. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03774.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mondal D, Sharma M, Maiti P et al (2013) Fuel intermediates, agricultural nutrients and pure water from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed. RSC Adv 3:17989–17997. doi: 10.1039/C3RA42919A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nelson WR, Van SJ (1986) Effect of seaweed concentrate on the growth of wheat. S Afr J Sci 82:199–200. doi: 10.1007/BF02327254 Google Scholar
  25. Pan X, Welti R, Wang X (2010) Quantitative analysis of major plant hormones in crude plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nat Protoc 5:986–992. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2010.37 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Pramanick B, Brahmachari K, Ghosh A, Zodape S (2014) Effect of seaweed saps on growth and yield improvement of transplanted rice in old alluvial soil of West Bengal. Bangladesh J Bot 43:53–58. doi: 10.3329/bjb.v43i1.19746 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prasad K, Das AK, Oza MD, Brahmbhatt H, Siddhanta AK, Meena R, Eswaran K, Rajyaguru MR, Ghosh PK (2010) Detection and quantification of some plant growth regulators in a seaweed-based foliar spray employing a mass spectrometric technique sans chromatographic separation. J Agric Food Chem 58:4594–4601. doi: 10.1021/jf904500e CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rathore SS, Chaudhary DR, Boricha GN, Ghosh A, Bhatt BP, Zodape ST, Patolia JS (2009) Effect of seaweed extract on the growth, yield and nutrient uptake of soybean (Glycine max) under rainfed conditions. S Afr J Bot 75:351–355. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2008.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rebary B, Paul P, Ghosh PK (2010) Determination of iodide and iodate in edible salt by ion chromatography with integrated amperometric detection. Food Chem 123:529–534. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.04.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shah MT, Zodape ST, Chaudhary DR, Eswaran K, Chikara J (2013) Seaweed sap as an alternative liquid fertilizer for yield and quality improvement of wheat. J Plant Nutr 36:192–200. doi: 10.1080/01904167.2012.737886 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stuart NW (1936) Adaptation of the micro-Kjeldahl method for the determination of nitrogen in plant tissues. J Plant Physiol 11:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tyndall JC, Berg EJ, Colletti JP (2011) Corn stover as a biofuel feedstock in Iowa’s bio-economy: an Iowa farmer survey. Biomass Bioenergy 35:1485–1495. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.08.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wally OS, Critchley AT, Hiltz D et al (2013) Regulation of phytohormone biosynthesis and accumulation in Arabidopsis following treatment with commercial extract from the marine macroalga Ascophyllum nodosum. J Plant Growth Regul 32:324–339. doi: 10.1007/s00344-012-9301-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weiss D, Ori N (2007) Mechanisms of cross talk between gibberellin and other hormones. Plant Physiol 144:1240–1246. doi: 10.1104/pp.107.100370 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Zamarreño A, Cantera RG, Garcia-Mina JM (1997) Extraction and determination of glycine betaine in liquid fertilizers. J Agric Food Chem 45:774–776. doi: 10.1021/jf960342h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zodape ST, Mukhopadhyay S, Eswaran K, Reddy MP, Chikara J (2010) Enhanced yield and nutritional quality in green gram (Phaseolus radiata L.) treated with seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) extract. J Sci Ind Res 69:468–471Google Scholar
  37. Zodape ST, Gupta A, Bhandari SC, Rawat US, Chaudhary DR, Eswaran K, Chikara J (2011) Foliar application of seaweed sap as biostimulant for enhancement of yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). J Sci Ind Res 70:215–219Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dibyendu Mondal
    • 1
  • Arup Ghosh
    • 1
  • Kamalesh Prasad
    • 1
  • Sarnam Singh
    • 1
  • Nidhi Bhatt
    • 1
  • S. T. Zodape
    • 1
  • Jai Prakash Chaudhary
    • 1
  • Jayesh Chaudhari
    • 1
  • Pabitra B. Chatterjee
    • 1
  • Abhiram Seth
    • 2
  • Pushpito K. Ghosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR) and CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research InstituteBhavnagarIndia
  2. 2.Aquagri Processing Private LimitedNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations