Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 61–70 | Cite as

Comparison of vitality between seedlings germinated from black-coated and yellow-coated seeds of a turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) subjected to NaCl and CdCl2 stresses

  • Lijie Xuan
  • Nazim Hussain
  • Zhong Wang
  • Yuxiao Jiang
  • Mingxun Chen
  • Lixi Jiang
Original Paper


Yellow-seeded (YS) rapeseed varieties have attracted considerable interests from cultivators because of their thin seed coat and high seed oil content. However, compared with black-seeded (BS) rapeseed, little is known about the response of YS rapeseed to abiotic stresses. In this study, we characterized the cellular structures of YS varieties and BS varieties and the physiological parameters of the YS and BS seedlings subjected to high-salt and/or high-cadmium conditions. We observed larger and denser (in arrangement) oilbodies in YS than in BS varieties. The BS variety seed coat was much thicker than that of the YS variety because of the existence of a palisade layer where pigments are deposited. Either at the eighth day or 1 month after sowing, YS seedlings showed higher sensitivity to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress than BS seedlings, as reflected by the length of roots, biomass, and a variety of physiological parameters, including MDA, chlorophyll content, and antioxidant activities. Our results suggested that the more vigorous growth of BS seedlings is likely due to the higher flavonoid content in their vegetative tissues, and the poor performance of YS seedlings under stress treatment (especially with NaCl) could be attributed to its relatively low flavonoid content. Our findings raise some points that need further investigation to obtain an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved.


Yellow seeded rapeseeds Abiotic stress Seed oil content Brassica rapa 



Yellow seeded


Black seeded




Transparent Testa




Superoxide dismutase







The work of our lab was sponsored by the National Key Basic Research Project (abbreviated as 973 project, Code No. 2015CB150205) and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production. We thank Miss Mei Li for her technical assistance.

Supplementary material

10725_2014_19_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (4.9 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 4977 kb)
10725_2014_19_MOESM2_ESM.doc (88 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 88 kb)
10725_2014_19_MOESM3_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 13 kb)


  1. Akhov L, Ashe P, Tan Y, Datla R, Selvaraj G (2009) Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the seed coat of yellow-seeded, canola quality Brassica napus YN01-429 is constrained at the committed step catalyzed by dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. Botany 87:616–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baum SJ, Burnham BF, Plane RA (1964) Studies on the biosynthesis of chlorophyll: chemical incorporation of magnesium into porphyrins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 52:1439–1442CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen MX, Du X, Zhu Y, Wang Z, Hua SJ, Li ZL, Guo WL, Zhang GP, Peng JR, Jiang LX (2012) Seed fatty acid reducer acts downstream of gibberellin signaling pathway to lower seed fatty acid storage in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environ 35:2155–2169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. DalCorso G, Farinati S, Maistri S, Furini A (2008) How plants cope with Cadmium: staking all on metabolism and gene expression. J Integr Plant Biol 50(10):1268–1280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Debeaujon I, Léon-Kloosterziel KM, Koornneef M (2000) Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination, and longevity in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 122:403–413CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Debeaujon I, Nesi N, Perez P, Devic M, Grandjean O, Caboche M, Lepiniec L (2003) Proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells in Arabidopsis testa: regulation of differentiation and role in seed development. Plant Cell 15:2514–2531CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong JS, Shi DQ, Gao JQ, Li CL, Liu J, Qi CK, Yang WC (2009) Correlation between the quantity and the sum of areas of oil bodies and oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Chin Bull Bot 44:79–85Google Scholar
  8. Filkowski J, Kovalchuk O, Kovalchuk I (2004) Genome stability of vtc1, tt4 and tt5 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in protection against oxidative stress. Plant J 38:60–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in Nonhalophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:149–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gusta LV, Johnson EN, Nesbitt NT, Kirkland KJ (2004) Effects of seeding date on canola seed quality and seed vigor. Can J Plant Sci 84:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu Z, Wang X, Zhan G et al (2009) Unusually large oilbodies are highly correlated with lower oil content in Brassica napus. Plant Cell Rep 28(4):541–549CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lauchli A (1990) Calcium, salinity and the plasma membrane. In: Leonard RT, Hepler PK (eds) Calcium in plant growth and development. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, pp 26–35Google Scholar
  13. Li BH, Tian WX (2004) Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on animal fatty acid synthase. J Biochem 135:85–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lux A, Martinka M, Vaculík M, White PJ (2011) Root responses to cadmium in the rhizosphere: a review. J Exp Bot 62:21–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Marles MAS, Gruber MY (2004) Histochemical characterisation of unextractable seed coat pigments and quantification of extractable lignin in the Brassicaceae. J Sci Food Agric 84:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Meng HB, Hua SJ, Shamsi IH, Jilani G, Li YL, Jiang LX (2009) Cadmium-induced stress on the seed germination and seedling growth of Brassica napus L., and its alleviation through exogenous plant growth regulators. Plant Growth Regul 58:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Muday GK (2001) Auxins and tropisms. J Plant Growth Regul 20:226–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Nesi N, Jond C, Debeaujon I, Caboche M, Lepiniec L (2001) The Arabidopsis TT2 gene encodes an R2R3 MYB domain protein that acts as a key determinant for proanthocyanidin accumulation in developing seed. Plant Cell 13:2099–2114PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Qu C, Fu F, Lu K, Zhang K, Wang R, Xu X, Wang M, Lu J, Wan H, Zhanglin T, Li J (2013) Differential accumulation of phenolic compounds and expression of related genes in black- and yellow-seeded Brassica napus. J Exp Bot 64(10):2885–2898. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert148 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rodrigo MP, Findlay K, Lopez-Villalobos A, Yeung EC, Nykiforuk CL, Moloney MM (2006) The accumulation of oleosins determines the size of seed oilbodies in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 18:1961–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sarry JE, Kuhn L, Ducruix C, Lafaye A, Junot C, Hugouvieux V, Jourdain A, Bastien O, Fievet JB, Vaihen D, Amekraz B, Moulin C, Ezan E, Garin J, Bourguignon J (2006) The early responses of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to cadmium exposure explored by protein and metabolite profiling analyses. Proteomics 6(7):2180–2198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Shirley BW (1998) Flavonoids in seeds and grains: physiological function, agronomic importance and the genetics of biosynthesis. Seed Sci Res 8:415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Siedlecka A, Baszynsky T (1993) Inhibition of electron flow around photosystem I in chloroplasts of Cd-treated maize plants is due to Cd-induced iron deficiency. Physiol Plant 87:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith AP, Nourizadeh S, Peer WA, Xu J, Bandyopadhyay A, Murphy AS, Goldsbrough PB (2003) Arabidopsis AtGSTF2 is regulated by ethylene and auxin, and encodes a glutathione S-transferase that interacts with flavonoids. Plant J 36:433–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Velasco L, Fernández-Martínez JM, Haro AD (1997) Determination of the fatty acid composition of the oil in intact-seed mustard by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. JAOCS 74(12):1595–1602Google Scholar
  26. Wang Z, Chen M, Chen T, Xuan L, Li Z, Du X, Zhou L, Zhang GP, Jiang LX (2014) TRANSPARENT TESTA2 regulates embryonic fatty acid biosynthesis by targeting FUSCA3 during the early developmental stage of Arabidopsis seeds. Plant J 77:757–769CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Weiss D, Ori N (2007) Mechanisms of cross-talk between gibberellin and other hormones. Plant Physiol 144:1240–1246CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Xiao SS, Xu JS, Li Y, Zhang L, Shi S, Shi S, Wu JS, Liu KD (2007) Generation and mapping of SCAR and CAPS markers linked to the seed coat color gene in Brassica napus using a genome-walking technique. Genome 50:611–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Yu CY (2013) Molecular mechanism of manipulating seed coat coloration in oilseed Brassica species. J Appl Genet 54:135–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang YM, Rock CO (2004) Evaluation of epigallocatechin gallate and related plant polyphenols as inhibitors of the FabG and FabI reductases of bacterial type II fatty-acid synthase. J Biol Chem 279:30994–31001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang Y, Li X, Chen W, Yi B, Wen J, Shen J, Ma C, Chen B, Tu J, Fu T (2011) Identification of two major QTL for yellow seed color in two crosses of resynthesized Brassica napus line No. 2127-17. Mol Breed 28:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhu YN, Cao ZY, Xu F, Huang Y, Chen MX, Guo WL, Zhou WJ, Zhu J, Meng JL, Zou J, Jiang LX (2012) Analysis of gene expression profiles of two near-isogenic lines differing at a QTL region affecting oil content at high temperatures during seed maturation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). TAG 124:515–531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Agriculture and BiotechnologyZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations