Advertisement

Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 67, Issue 1, pp 73–81 | Cite as

Foliar application of urea to “Sauvignon Blanc” and “Merlot” vines: doses and time of application

  • Berta Lasa
  • Sergio Menendez
  • Kepa Sagastizabal
  • Maria Erendira Calleja Cervantes
  • Ignacio Irigoyen
  • Julio Muro
  • Pedro M. Aparicio-Tejo
  • Idoia Ariz
Original paper

Abstract

A careful control of the N nutritional status of grapevines can have a determining effect on wine characteristics; therefore a suitable management of N fertilization might allow some wine parameters to be modified, thereby improving product quality. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foliar application of urea at different doses and different times of the growing season on the parameters of Sauvignon Blanc and Merlot grape juice. The research described herein involved Sauvignon Blanc and Merlot grapevines (V. vinifera L.) at a commercial vineyard and was conducted over 2 years. In the first year, N treatment involved a foliar application at a dose of 10 kg N ha−1 during veraison, whereas in the second year it involved a foliar urea application at two doses (10 and 50 kg N ha−1) and at three different times—3 weeks before veraison, during veraison and 3 weeks after veraison. In this second year, the urea applied at a dose of 10 kg N ha−1 was isotopically labelled with 1% 15N. Chemical parameters, yeast assimilable N, amino acid content, amino acid profile and N isotopic composition were determined for all treatments. Grape and grape-juice parameters for Merlot were found to be more affected by N fertilization than for Sauvignon Blanc and were also more affected during the second year than during the first year, thus indicating that the climatic characteristics of each campaign could affect these parameters. The yeast assimilable N in grape juice was found to be higher for late applications of foliar urea, with application of the higher dose of urea during veraison increasing the amino acid and proline contents in both varieties. The isotopic analysis data showed that the urea applied to leaves was transferred to the berries, with the maximum translocation in Sauvignon Blanc occurring for the post-veraison treatment and in Merlot for the veraison treatment. We can therefore conclude that foliar application of urea could modify grape juice quality and could therefore be used as a tool for obtaining quality wines.

Keywords

Vitis vinifera Isotopic composition Nitrogen Amino acids N-transport 

References

  1. Aerny J (1996) Composés azotés des moûts et des vins. Revue Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 28:161–165Google Scholar
  2. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage. Paper 56. FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariz I, Cruz C, Moran JF, Gonzalez-Moro MB, Garcia-Olaverri C, Gonzalez-Murua C, Martins-Loucao MA, Aparicio-Tejo PM (2011) Depletion of the heaviest stable N isotope is associated with NH4 +/NH3 toxicity in NH4 +-fed plants. BMC Plant Biol 11 (in press)Google Scholar
  4. Bell SJ, Henschke PA (2005) Implications of nitrogen nutrition for grapes, fermentation and wine. Aust J Grape Wine R 11:242–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bisson LF (1991) Influence of nitrogen on yeast and fermentation of grapes. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on nitrogen on grapes and wine, Seattle, 78–89Google Scholar
  6. Bravdo BA, Hepner Y (1987) Irrigation management and fertigation to optimize grape composition and vine performance. Acta Hortic 206:49–67Google Scholar
  7. Hernandez-Orte P, Ibarz MJ, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2006) Addition of amino acids to grape juice of the Merlot variety: effect on amino acid uptake and aroma generation during alcoholic fermentation. Food Chem 98:300–310Google Scholar
  8. Jiranek V, Langridge P, Henschke PA (1995) Amino acid and ammonium utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisae wine yeasts from chemically defined medium. Am J Enol Vitic 46:75–83Google Scholar
  9. Keller M, Hrazdina G (1998) Interaction of nitrogen availability during bloom and light intensity during veraison. II. Effects on anthocyanin and phenolic development during grape ripening. Am J Enol Viticult 49:341–349Google Scholar
  10. Keller M, Pool RM, Henick-Kling T (1999) Excessive nitrogen supply and shoot trimming can impair colour development in Pinot Noir grapes and wine. Aust J Grape Wine R 5:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kliewer M (1968) Changes in the concentration of free amino acids in grape berries during maturation. J Food Sci 19:166–174Google Scholar
  12. Kliewer WM, Cook JA (1974) Arginine levels in grape canes and fruits as indicators of nitrogen status of vineyards. Am J Enol Viticult 25:111–118Google Scholar
  13. Kliewer WM (1977) Influence of temperature, solar-radiation and nitrogen on coloration and composition of emperor grapes. Am J Enol Vitic 28:96–103Google Scholar
  14. Koundouras S, Marinos V, Gkoulioti A, Kotseridis Y, Van Leeuwen C (2006) Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated Cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components. J Agric Food Chem 54:5077–5086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lacroux L, Tregoat O, Van Leeuwen C, Pons A, Tominaga T, Lavigne-Cruege V, Dubourdieu D (2008) Effect of foliar nitrogen and sulphur application on aromatic expression of Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon Blanc. J Int Sci Vigne Vin 42:125–132Google Scholar
  16. Mengel K (2002) Alternative or complementary role of foliar supply in mineral nutrition. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on foliar nutrition of perennial fruit plants, Italy. 594:33–47Google Scholar
  17. Policarpo M, Stefanini M, Lo Bianco R, Di Marco L (2006) Foliar fertilization and bunch thinning of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapes. Acta Hortic 721:251–256Google Scholar
  18. Ramteke SD, Satisha J, Singh RK, Somkuwar R (2001) Effect of soil moisture stress on nutrient content, growth and yield of Tas-A-Ganesh grapes grafted on Dogridge rootstock. Ann Plant Physiol 15:67–71Google Scholar
  19. Schreiber AT, Merkt N, Blaich R, Fox R (2002) Distribution of foliar applied labelled nitrogen in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Riesling). Proceedings of the international symposium on foliar nutrition of perennial fruit plants. Acta Hortic 594:139–148Google Scholar
  20. Spayd SE, Wample RL, Evans RG, Stevens RG, Seymour BJ, Nagel CW (1994) Nitrogen-fertilization of white riesling grapes in Washington—must and wine composition. Am J Enol Vitic 45:34–42Google Scholar
  21. Trioli G, Paronetto L (1992) Relazioni tra componente azotate dei mosti e qualitá dei vini. Vignevini 1(2):29–36Google Scholar
  22. Watson TG (1976) Amino-acid pool composition of Saccharomyces cerevisae as a function of growth rate and amino-acid nitrogen source. J Gen Microbiol 96:263–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Witte CP, Tiller SA, Taylor MA, Davies HV (2002) Leaf urea metabolism in potato. Urease activity profile and patterns of recovery and distribution of 15N after foliar urea application in wild-type and urease-antisense transgenics. Plant Physiol 128:1129–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xia GH, Cheng LL (2004) Foliar urea application in the fall affects both nitrogen and carbon storage in young ‘concord’ grapevines grown under a wide range of nitrogen supply. Hortscience 39:827–828Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berta Lasa
    • 1
  • Sergio Menendez
    • 1
  • Kepa Sagastizabal
    • 2
  • Maria Erendira Calleja Cervantes
    • 1
  • Ignacio Irigoyen
    • 3
  • Julio Muro
    • 3
  • Pedro M. Aparicio-Tejo
    • 1
  • Idoia Ariz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agro-biotechnology (IdAB), UPNa-CSIC-GNMutilva BajaSpain
  2. 2.Inurrieta WineryFalcesSpain
  3. 3.Dpto. Producción Agraria, Campus ArrosadíaPublic University of NavarraPamplonaSpain

Personalised recommendations