Changes in concentrations of soluble carbohydrates during germination of Amaranthus caudatus L. seeds in relation to ethylene, gibberellin A3 and methyl jasmonate
Unimbibed Amaranthus caudatus seeds were found to contain stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, sucrose, galactinol, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose, while no galactose, maltose and maltotriose was detected. During imbibition, seed concentrations of verbascose, stachyose, raffinose, galactinol, myo-inositol (temporary) and fructose (transient) were observed to decrease; concentrations of galactose and maltose remained fairly constant, while those of sucrose, glucose and maltotriose increased, the increase in sucrose concentration was only temporary. Effects of gibberellin A3 (GA3) at 3 × 10−4 M and ethephon at 3 × 10−4 M alone or in the presence of methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) at 10−3 M on concentrations of soluble sugars during germination of A. caudatus seeds were examined. Me-JA was found to inhibit seed germination and fresh weight of the seeds, but did not affect sucrose, myo-inositol, galactose and maltose concentrations during imbibition for up to 20 h. The exogenously applied GA3 was observed to enhance germination, stachyose breakdown and glucose concentration after 20 h of incubation. Ethephon stimulated seed germination as well as utilisation of stachyose, galactinol (both after 14 and 20 h) and raffinose (after 14 h of incubation). Although the stimulatory effect of either GA3 or ethephon on seed germination was blocked by Me-JA; these stimulators increased mobilisation of raffinose and stachyose, but only ethephon enhanced both glucose and fructose after 14 and/or 20 h of incubation in the presence of Me-JA. The maltose concentration was increased by both GA3 and ethephon alone and in the presence of Me-JA. Of the growth regulators studied, ethephon alone and/or in combination with Me-JA significantly increased the concentrations of glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose and maltotriose. The differences in sugar metabolism appear to be linked to ethylene or GA3 applied simultaneously with Me-JA.
KeywordsAmaranthus caudatus seeds Ethylene GA3 Germination Methyl jasmonate Soluble sugars
We wish to thank you Dr. E. Demole, Firmenich S.A. Geneva, Switzerland for the gift of methyl jasmonate. We are very grateful Editor in Chief C.J. Atkinson for correcting of English grammar.
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