Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 9–15 | Cite as

Effects of Short-term Red Radiation and Choline Compounds on Cytokinin Content, Chlorophyll Accumulation and Photomorphogenesis in Wheat Seedlings

  • V. Kreslavski
  • E. Kobzar
  • E. Ivanova
  • E. Kuznetsov


Effects of choline compounds (2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride and 2-ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) as well as red radiation (R) pulse on the dynamics of cytokinin changes, growth and chlorophyll (a + b) accumulation were studied during the growth and greening of etiolated wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L., var. Mironovskaya-808). The seedlings were grown for 120 h in the dark and then exposed for 72 h to white light. Pre-treatment of caryopses with cholines and pre-irradiation of etiolated seedlings with R inhibited elongation of both coleoptile and first leaf; but the same factors accelerated these growth responses when seedlings were exposed to white light. Chlorophyll (Chl) accumulation and the first leaf appearance from coleoptile were accelerated by the pre-treatments as well. Far-red radiation (FR) reversed all effects of R but choline pre-treatment eliminated partly R/FR photoreversibility. Two compounds with high cytokinin activity (tested on a fresh weight basis by the bioassay with Amaranthus caudatus L.) were found in shoots and first leaves. One of them had Rf, UV absorbance spectrum and the biological activity similar to N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine. Another cytokinin-like substance was not identified with the used standards. Stimulation of greening by R pulse and cholines was accompanied with accelerated accumulation of both cytokinin-like substances. We conclude that the influence of R and cholines on the concentration of substances with cytokinin activities detected in the leaves might be involved in the stimulation of Chl accumulation.

Key words

Choline compounds Cytokinins Greening Growth Phytochrome Triticum aestivum L. 



2-ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (choline chloride)


(2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (chlorocholine chloride)


chlorophyll (a + b)


cytokinin-like substance


far-red radiation






red radiation




zeatin riboside


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Kreslavski
    • 1
  • E. Kobzar
    • 1
  • E. Ivanova
    • 1
  • E. Kuznetsov
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Basic Biological Problems of Russian Academy of SciencesPushchinoRussia
  2. 2.Institute of General Physics of Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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