Genetic variation in some Iranian bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) landraces based on agronomic-morphological traits for use in breeding program in Rafsanjan

Abstract

The aims of this research were to generate information on agro-morphological variability among 42 bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) landraces collected from major growing areas of North West of Iran. The landraces were grown according to rectangular lattice design in the field across 2 years (2018 and 2019) in the Research Farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan (Rafsanjan, Iran). Observations were recorded days to 50% flowering, days to maturing start, days to 50% maturing, height to first flower node, plant height in flowering stage, plant height in maturity stage, root length in maturity stage, number of lateral branch, one, two and three seed pod length, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, number of seed per plant, thousand kernel weight, biomass and grain yield. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among landraces for the majority of the traits. Using principal component analysis, the first five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 contributed 74.4% of the variability among landraces. PC1, which is the most important component, explained 28. 9% of the total variation and was positively related to days to 50% maturing, plant height in maturity stage, days to maturing start, plant height in flowering stage, height to first flower node and biomass, respectively and PC2 accounted for 20.6% of the total variation and the traits with the greatest weight on this component were number of seed per plant, number of pod per plant, grain yield and two seed pod length, respectively. Cluster analysis using Ward method divided landraces into four groups. Based on cluster analysis and mean comparison among four groups, promising landraces were identified with superior traits such as number of pod per plant, number of seed per plant, thousand kernel weight, biomass and grain yield. The results demonstrated bitter vetch landraces of North West of Iran are a useful source of diversity in desirable traits that can be exploited in future breeding programs.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Data availability

Data in the study will participate willingly.

References

  1. Abbasi MR, Vaezi S, Baghaie N (2007) Genetic diversity of bitter vetch (Vicia Ervilia) collection of the National Plant Gene Bank of Iran based on agro-morphological traits. Iranian J Rangelands For Plant Breed Genet Res 15:113–128

    Google Scholar 

  2. Agrawal SC, Khare MN, Agrawal PS (1976) Field screening of lentil lines for resistance to rust. Indian J Phytopathol 292:20–28

    Google Scholar 

  3. Angeles-Garcia M, Cuartero N, Ferrando I (1992) Chemical composition and bromatological aspects of some legumes of genera lathyrus and vicia. Nutr Abstr Rev 62:12

    Google Scholar 

  4. Cruz CD, Regazzi AJ, Carneiro PCS (2004) Biometric models applied to breeding, 3rd edn. Viçosa Press, Viçosa

    Google Scholar 

  5. Deshmukh SN, Reddy PS (1986) Genetic variability, character association and path coefficients of quantitative traits in Virginia bunch varieties of ground nut. Indian J Agric Sci 56:816–821

    Google Scholar 

  6. El Fatehi S, Bena G, Filali-Maltouf A, Ater M (2014) Variation in yield component, phenology and morphological traits among Moroccan bitter vetch landraces Vicia ervilia L. Afr J Agric Res 9(23):1801–1809

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Falconer DS (1989) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 3rd edn. Longman, New York

    Google Scholar 

  8. Farran T, Halaby WS, Barbour GW, Uwayian MG, Sleiman FT, Ashkarian VM (2005) Effects of feeding ervil (Vicia Ervilia) seeds soaked in water or acetic acid on performance and internal organ size of broiler and production and egg quality of laying hens. Poult Sci 84:1723–1728

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Farshadfar E (1998) Application of biometrical genetics in plant breeding, 1st edn. Razi University Press, Kermanshah

    Google Scholar 

  10. Fotovat R, Moghadam M, Bozorgzadeh M (1998) Study of genetic diversity of bitter vetch landraces. 5th National Iranian Crop Science Congress, Tehran, University of Tehran, Aug. 31-Sep. vol 4, pp 67–68

  11. GRIN (2008) National genetic resources program, germplasm resources information network-(GRIN) online database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville

    Google Scholar 

  12. Jing R, Vershinin A, Grzebyta J, Shaw P, Smýkal P, Marshall D, Ambose MJ, Ellis TN, Flavell AJ (2010) The genetic diversity and evolution of field pea (Pisum) studied by high throughput retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) marker analysis. BMC Evol Biol 10:44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Johonson HW, Robinson HF, Comostock RE (1955) Genotypic and phenotypic correlations in soybeans and their implication in selection. Agron J 47:477–483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Malek MA, Rafii MY, Afroz MSS, Nath UK, Mondal MMA (2014) Morphological characterization and assessment of genetic variability, character association, and divergence in soybean mutants. Sci World J 2014:1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Mekonnen F, Mekbib F, Kumar S, Ahmed S, Sharma TR (2014) Agromorphological traits variability of the ethiopian lentil and exotic genotypes. Adv Agric 2014:1–15

    Google Scholar 

  16. Moeini MM, Azari MT, Amanlou H (2010) Degradability and nutritional value of Vicia ervilia seed on holstein dairy cow performance. J Anim Prod 12:51–59

    Google Scholar 

  17. Panse VG (1957) Genetics of quantitative characters in relation to plant breeding. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 17:318–328

    Google Scholar 

  18. Ramanujam S, Tiwari AS, Mehra RB (1974) Genetic divergence and hybrid performance in agronomic crops. Theor Appl Genet 45:211–214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Sabaghnia N, Ahadnezhad A, Janmohammdi M (2015) Genetic variation in garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) germplasm as assessed by some morphological traits. Genet Resour Crop Evol 62:733–745

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Sadeghi G, Pourreza J (2007) Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia Ervilia) seeds. Pak J Biol Sci 10:981–997

    Google Scholar 

  21. Sadeghi G, Samie A, Pourreza J, Rahmani HR (2004) Canavanine content and toxicity of raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia Ervilia) seeds for broiler chicken. Int J Poult Sci 3:522–529

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Sadeghi G, Pourreza J, Samie A, Rahmani HR (2009) Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet. Trop Anim Health Pro 41:85–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Sahhafi SR, Maleki Zanjani B, Talebi M, Fotovat R (2017) Evaluation of genetic diversity in some Iranian bitter vetch landraces using microsatellite markers. J Crop Breed 9(21):18–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Smith JSC, Smith OS (1989) The description and assessment of distance between inbred lines of maize. The use of morphological traits as descriptors. Maydica 34:141–150

    Google Scholar 

  25. Smith SE, Al-Dos AL, Warburton M (1991) Morphological and agronomic variation in North African and Arabian Alfalfa. Crop Sci 31:1159–1163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Yalçin S, Tuncer I, Yalçin S, Onbasilar EE (2003) The use of different levels of common vetch seed (Vicia Sativa L.) in diets for fattening rabbits. Livest Prod Sci 84:93–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Yousaf AA, Javed Akhter BM, Zahid LP (2008) Genetic variability, association and diversity studies in wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) germplasm. Pak J Bot 40:2087–2097

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

Not applicable.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Seyyed Rasoul Sahhafi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Not applicable.

Ethical Standards

This manuscript has not been submitted in whole or in part elsewhere. The manuscript is not currently being considered for publication in another journal in any form or language (partially or in full). This manuscript will not spill up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time. Result is presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). We adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data. This manuscript does not include data, text, or theories by others without their name.

Informed consent

Subjects in this study will participate willingly. We consent to publish this study in this journal.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hassanpour, F., Sahhafi, S.R. Genetic variation in some Iranian bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) landraces based on agronomic-morphological traits for use in breeding program in Rafsanjan. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-020-00962-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Bitter vetch
  • Genetic variation
  • Principal component analysis
  • Cluster analysis