Glycyrrhiza is a widely used traditional Chinese herb with medicinal values. In order to avoid handling a large number of collections with redundant genetic information, it is necessary to construct a core collection with minimal accessions and maximal genetic diversity. In this study, the initial collection consisted of 736 accessions from four species, each of which was analyzed using SSR markers. The advanced M (maximization) strategy of PowerCore was utilized to select 124 accessions for the core collection. The core collection retained 100% of the alleles of the initial collection, and there was no significant difference regarding the genetic diversity parameters compared to the initial collection. PCoA and AMOVA also showed that the core collection has a similar genetic distribution. NJ and STRUCTURE analyses showed that the core collection can be divided into three groups: The first group is represented by the majority of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.; the second group is represented by Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin and Glycyrrhiza glabra L.; and finally, the third group is represented by Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. The results indicate that the core collection is an effective tool for representing the genetic diversity of the initial collection. The core collection also provides a useful primary resource to improve the conservation of genetic diversity and to improve Glycyrrhiza breeding.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Brown AHD (1995) Core collections of plant genetic resources. Wiley-Sayce Publication, London, pp 3–19
Brown AHD (1989) Core collections: a practical approach to genetic resources management. Genome 31:818–824
Bu HD, Zhang BB (2010) Research progress of fruit tree core collection. Northern Hortic 4:211–213
Campoy JA, Lerigoleur-Balsemin E, Christmann H, Beauvieux R, Girollet N, Quero-García J, Dirlewanger E, Barreneche T (2016) Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium, population structure and construction of a core collection of Prunus avium L. landraces and bred cultivars. BMC Plant Biol 16:49
Chandra S, Huaman Z, Hari Krishna S, Ortiz R (2002) Optimal sampling strategy and core collection size of Andean tetraploid potato based on isozyme data—a simulation study. Theor Appl Genet 104:1325–1334
China Pharmacopoeia Committee (2015) Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China, vol 1. China Medical Science and Technology Press, Beijing, pp 86–87 (in Chinese)
Cipriani G, Spadotto A, Jurman I et al (2010) The SSR-based molecular profile of 1005 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions uncovers new synonymy and parentages, and reveals a large admixture amongst varieties of different geographic origin. Theor Appl Genet 121(8):1569–1585
Chen F, Wang A, Chen K, Wan D, Liu J (2009) Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered and medically important Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae) revealed by SSR markers. Biochem Syst Ecol 37:613–621
Chen R, Hara T, Ohsawa R, Yoshioka Y (2017) Analysis of genetic diversity of rapeseed genetic resources in Japan and core collection construction. Breed Sci 67(3):239–247
Deng SC, Tian YP, Li YY, Duan ZF, Jiang HB, Bao YX, Pu SL, Sun XM, Liu BY, Wang YG, Zhao CM (2015) Research progress of core germplasm of tea tree resources. Chin Agric Sci Bull 31(16):121–126 (in Chinese)
De Lafontaine G, Ducousso A, Lefèvre S, Magnanou E, Petit RJ (2013) Stronger spatial genetic structure in recolonized areas than in refugia in the European beech. Mol Ecol 22:4397–4412
Earl DA, Vonholdt BM (2012) Structure harvester: a website and program for visualizing structure output and implementing the Evanno method. Conserv Genet Resour 4:359–361
Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software structure: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14:2611–2620
Frankel OH, Brown AHD (1984) Plant genetic resources today: a critical appraisal. In: Holden JHW, Williams JT (eds) Crop genetic resources: conservation and evaluation. George Allan and Unwin, London, pp 249–257
Frankle OH (1984) Genetic perspectives of germplasm conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 161–170
Ge SJ, Li GM, Ma ZY, Wu XY, Meng YJ, Huo YQ (2009) Analysis on genetic diversity of wild populations of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) with AFLP markers. Sci Agric Sin 42(01):47–54 (in Chinese)
Heinken T, Weber E (2013) Consequences of habitat fragmentation for plant species: do we know enough? Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 15:205–216
Hodgkin T (1994) Core collection and conservation of genetic resources. In: Arora RK, Riley KW (eds) Sesame bio-diversity in Asia, conservation, evaluation and improvement. New Delhi, pp 41–51
Holbrook CC, Anderson WF, Pittman RN (1993) Selection of a core collection from the U.S. germplasm collection of peanut. Crop Sci 33:859–861
Hu J, Xu HM, Zhu J (2000) Construction of core library of crop germplasm resources by multiple cluster method of genotypic value. J Biomath 1:103–109 (in Chinese)
Kim KW, Chung HK, Cho GT, Ma KH, Chandrabalan D, Gwag JG, Kim TS, Cho EG, Park YJ (2007) PowerCore: a program applying the advanced M strategy with a heuristic search for establishing core sets. Bioinformatics 23:2155–2162
Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874
Li HG (2017) Genetic diversity analysis, core collection construction and molecular identification of Eucommia ulmoides oliver. Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing (in Chinese)
Li HG, Xu JH, Du HY, Wuyun TN, Liu PF, Du QX (2018) Preliminary construction of core collection of Eucommia ulmoides based on allele number maximization strategy. Sci Silvae Sin 54(2):42–51 (in Chinese)
Li XL, Lu JH, Xie LB, Zhang AX, Chen XC, Li XY (2015) Development of EST-SSR primers and genetic relationship analysis in four Glycyrrhiza L. Species. Acta Bot Boreali-Occidentalia Sin 35(3):480–485 (in Chinese)
Liu J, Liao K, Mansur N, Cao Q, Jing ZB, Jia Y (2015a) Core-germplasm construction of apricot collections in South of Xinjiang by ISSR molecular markers. J Fruit Sci 32(3):374–384 (in Chinese)
Liu X, Hou W, Dou D (2017) The mealiness and quality of herbal medicine: licorice for example. Pharmacognosy Res 9(2):151–155
Liu RX (2016) Study on construction of Scutellaria baicalensis core collection and screening of excellent Germplasm. Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing (in Chinese)
Liu YL, Zhang PF, Song ML, Hou JL, Qing M, Wang WQ, Liu CS (2015b) Transcriptome analysis and development of SSR molecular markers in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. PLoS ONE 11:1–12
Liu YY, Liu CS, Zeng BF, Fan BD, Li PS, Xu TH, Liu TH (2013) Research progress on germplasm resources of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Chin Tradit Herb Drugs 44(24):3593–3598 (in Chinese)
Luan MB, Chen YM, Wang XF, Xu Y, Sun ZM, Chen JH, Wang JS (2018) Core collection of ramie comprising 1151 germplasms based on simple sequence repeats and phenotypic markers. Braz J Bot 41:859–866
Liu MM (2012) Genetic diversity analysis and core germplasm construction of ISSR from Scutellaria baicalensis. Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi (in Chinese)
Liu J (2015) Analysis of genetic diversity and establishment of core collection of apricot Germplasm resources in XinJing. Xinjing Agricultural University, Xinjing (in Chinese)
Mckhann HI, Camilleri C, Bérard A, Bataillon T, David JL, Reboud X, LeCorre V, Caloustian C, Gut IG, Brunel D (2004) Nested core collections maximizing genetic diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 38(1):193–202
Ma CY, Qu P, Wang WQ (2011a) Identification of pollen ultrastructure and fluorescence microscope observation of pollen viability and stigma activity of liquorice. J Plant Genet Resour 12(3):396–401 (in Chinese)
Meng XS (2018) Correlation analysis between effective components and genetic diversity of ISSR and ITS markers in Astragalus membranaceus. Ningxia University, Yinchuan (in Chinese)
Ma C, Liu C, Wang W (2011b) Molecular cloning and characterization of GuHMGR, an HMG-CoA reductase gene from liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Front Agric China 5:400–406 (in Chinese)
Nevo E, Beiles A (1989) Genetic diversity in the desert: patterns and testable hypotheses. J Arid Environ 17:241–244
Ortiz R, Ruiz-Tapia EN, Mujica-Sanchez A (1998) Sampling strategy for a core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 96:475–483
Orsini L, Vanoverbeke J, Swillen I, Mergeay J, De Meester L (2013) Drivers of population genetic differentiation in the wild: isolation by dispersal limitation, isolation by adaptation and isolation by colonization. Mol Ecol 22:5983–5999
Palme AE, Su Q, Palsson S, Lascoux M (2004) Extensive sharing of chloroplast haplotypes among European birches indicates hybridization among Betula pendula, B. pubescens and B. nana. Mol Ecol 13(1):167–178
Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an update. Bioinformatics 28:2537–2539
Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155(2):945–959
Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425
Shen Z, Ma LY, Ao Y, Duan J (2017) Analysis of the genetic diversity and construction of core collection of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. Using microsatellite marker data. Mol Plant Breed 15(08):3341–3350 (in Chinese)
Su W, Wang L, Lei J, Chai S, Liu Y, Yang Y, Yang X, Jiao C (2017) Genome-wide assessment of population structure and genetic diversity and development of a core germplasm set for sweet potato based on specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing. PLoS ONE 12(2):e0172066. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone
Sun ZR, Wang WQ, Zhang JS, Lv YX, Zhang RF (2007) Seed biological characteristics and seedling growth in Glycyrrhiza uralensis from two provenances in Mongolia. Chin Tradit Herb Drugs 38(1):108–113 (in Chinese)
Sun SY (2017) Study on drought resistance and diversity of Astragali Radix germplasm resources. Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot (in Chinese)
Wang Q, Li J, Simayi H (2018) Utilization status and protection measures for licorice resources in Xinjiang. Grass-Feeding Livest 2:52–56 (in Chinese)
Wu Y (2017) Genetic diversity analysis and establishment of the core collection of pepper germplasm resources based on SRAP, SSR Makers. Jiangxi Agricultural University, Jiangxi (in Chinese)
Yang L, Chen J, Hu W, Yang T, Zhang Y, Yukiyoshi T, Zhou Y, Wang Y (2016) Population genetic structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is shaped by habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics. PLoS ONE 11(10):e0164129. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164129
This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province of China (201901D111217), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31400285) and the China Herbal Medicine Standardization Production Technology Service Platform [ministry of consumption (2011) 340].
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Our manuscript is our original research work and academically satisfies all moral and ethical standards, without any plagiarism or false data.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Liu, Y., Geng, Y., Xie, X. et al. Core collection construction and evaluation of the genetic structure of Glycyrrhiza in China using markers for genomic simple sequence repeats. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-020-00944-1
- Core collection
- SSR marker
- Genetic diversity