Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 62, Issue 5, pp 733–745 | Cite as

Genetic variation in garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) germplasm as assessed by some morphological traits

  • Naser Sabaghnia
  • Amin Ahadnezhad
  • Mohsen Janmohammdi
Research Article


The morphological variation of 81 garden cress including 77 accessions of Genebank Department of Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Gatersleben, Germany and four ancient varieties collected from different geographical and bioclimatic areas of Iran were assessed based on 19 morphological traits. The genotypes were grown according to simple lattice design with four replications across 2 years (2012 and 2013). Significant differences among accessions were revealed for the majority of traits. The coefficient of variation varied from 18.05 (number of seeds per silique of lateral branches) to 52.79 % (biological yield) in the first year and varied from 9.12 (number of seeds of silique per plant) to 36.05 % (biological yield) in the second year. The first four factors explained 83.92 % of the total variation at year 2012 while the first four factors explained 76.93 % of the total variation at year 2013 among 81 of garden cress accessions. At both years, days to flowering, days to maturing, height of first branch and height of first silique, number of silique per lateral branches and number of siliques per plant were the most important traits contributing to the first two factors. This indicates that breeding programs should be based on these traits for improvement of garden cress. The regions of origin of the accessions were dispersed in ten sub-units which the first factor axis was much more important than the second one in separating the regions of origin of the accessions and separated sub-units five from four other sub-units, but this factor axis could not separate accessions of sub-unit I. Based on the observed structures of variation, it is concluded that the magnitude of morphological variation in the material studied is high and the implications of the results for plant breeding programs are discussed. The results of the present study can be used for breeding and improvement of garden cress for various desired traits through hybridization in future.


Classification Garden cress Genetic variation Lepidium sativum Morphological traits 



Sincere gratitude goes to Genebank Department of Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK; Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung) in Gatersleben, Germany for providing plant materials.


  1. Bandila S, Ghanta A, Natarajan S, Subramonia S (2011) Determination of genetic variation in Indian sesame (Sesamum indicum) genotypes for agro-morphological traits. J Res Agric Sci 7:88–99Google Scholar
  2. Bansal D, Bhasin P, Yadav OP, Punia A (2012) Assessment of genetic diversity in Lepidium sativum (Chandrasur) a medicinal herb used in folklore remedies in India using RAPD. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 10:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedassa T, Andargie M, Eshete M (2013a) Genetic variability and association among yield, yield related traits and oil content in Ethiopian garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) genotypes. J Plant Breed Crop Sci 5:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bedassa T, Andargie M, Eshete M (2013b) Genetic divergence analysis of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). J Plant Breed Crop Sci 5:770–774Google Scholar
  5. Bermejo JEH, Leon J (1994) Neglected horticultural crops. Plant Production and Protection Series. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheema KL, Iqbal M, Niaz S, Shafique M (2011) Assessment of variability of muskmelon. Int J Veg Sci 17:322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dayal N, Singh SN (1985) Inbreeding depression in chromosome behaviour of the garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Cytologia 50:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gabay MP (2002) Galactogogues: medications that induce lactation. J Hum Lactation 18:274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hegay S, Geleta M, Bryngelsson T, Asanaliev A, Garkava-Gustavsson L, Hovmalm HP, Ortiz R (2014) Genetic diversity analysis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. using morphological traits. Genet Resour Crop Evol 61:555–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ivanovska S, Stojkovski C, Dimov Z, Marjanovic-Jeromela A, Jankulovska M, Jankuloski L (2007) Interrelationship between yield and yield related traits of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes. Genetika 39:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lanner-Herrera C, Gustafsson M, Falt AS, Bryngelsson T (1996) Diversity in wild populations of Brassica oleracea as estimated by isozyme and RAPD analysis. Genet Resour Crop Evol 43:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li Y, Zhang T, Korkaya H, Liu S, Lee HF, Newman B, Yu Y, Clouthier SG, Schwartz SJ, Wicha MS, Sun D (2010) Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli\sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells. Clin Cancer Res 16:2580–2590PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Majeed A, Ahmad H, Muhammad Z (2010) Variation in chlorophyll contents and grain yield of Lepidium sativum L. as induced by gamma irradiation. Int J Biol Sci Eng 1:147–151Google Scholar
  14. Marjanovic-Jeromela A, Marinkovi R, Mijic A, Zdunic Z, Ivanovska S, Jankulovska M (2008) Correlation and path analysis of quantitative traits in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Agric Conspec Sci 73:13–18Google Scholar
  15. Million F (2011) Genetic divergence in Ethiopian Fenugrek landraces: morpho-physiological and nodulation traits in Ethiopian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) landraces. LAP LAMBERT Academic PublishingGoogle Scholar
  16. Minitab (2014) Minitab user’s guide, version 17. Minitab Inc, HarrisburgGoogle Scholar
  17. Nooryazdan H, Serieys H, Bacilieri R, David J, Berville A (2010) Structure of wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) accessions based on agro-morphological traits. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ozer H, Oral E, Dogru U (1999) Relationship between yield and yield components on currently improved spring rapeseed cultivars. Turk J Agric For 23:603–607Google Scholar
  19. Parsa A (1960) Medicinal plants and drugs of plant origin in Iran. IV. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (Former Qual Plant) 7(1):65–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Povalyaeva IA (1981) Anatomical peculiarities of the vegetative organs of the cress. Byull Vses Ord Lenina Inst Rast NI Vavilova 109:48–51 [In Russian]Google Scholar
  21. Rao VR, Hodgkin T (2002) Genetic diversity and conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 68:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sabaghnia N, Dehghani H, Alizadeh B, Mohghaddam M (2010) Interrelationships between seed yield and 20 related traits of 49 canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes in non-stressed and water-stressed environments. Span J Agric Res 8:356–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sabaghnia N, Asadi-Gharneh HA, Janmohammadi M (2014) Genetic diversity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) landraces collected in Iran using some morphological traits. Acta Agric Slov 103:101–111Google Scholar
  24. SAS (2004) SAS/STAT guide for personal Computer, Proprietary software Version 9.1 SAS Institute Inc., Cary. NC. USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Sat IG, Yildirim E, Turan M, Demirbas M (2013) Antioxidant and nutritional characteristics of garden cress (Lepidium sativum). Acta Sci Pol Hortorum Cultus 12:173–179Google Scholar
  26. Sharma S, Agarwal N (2011) Nourishing and healing prowess of garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): a review. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2:292–297Google Scholar
  27. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1981) Statistical methods, 6th edn. Iowa State Univ. Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  28. Souri E, Amin GH, Farsam H, Andaji S (2004) The antioxidant activity of some commonly used vegetables in Iranian diet. Fitoterapia 75:585–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sumeet D, Ritesh P, Sudeep K, Reneesh J, Sudhish R, Alok S (2010) Quantitative estimation of fixed oil obtained from seeds of Lepidium sativum Linn. Int J Chem Anal Sci 1:6–9Google Scholar
  30. Szamosi C, Solmaz I, Sari N, Baársony C (2010) Morphological evaluation and comparison of Hungarian and Turkish melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm. Sci Hortic 124:170–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Trimech R, Zaouali Y, Boulila A, Chabchoub L, Ghezal I, Boussaid M (2013) Genetic variation in Tunisian melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm as assessed by morphological traits. Genet Resour Crop Evol 60:1621–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Uddin MJ, Chowdhury MAZ, Mia MFU (1995) Genetic variability, character association and path analysis in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Ann Bang Agric 5:51–54Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naser Sabaghnia
    • 1
  • Amin Ahadnezhad
    • 1
  • Mohsen Janmohammdi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of MaraghehMaraghehIran

Personalised recommendations