Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 60, Issue 7, pp 2143–2155 | Cite as

Evolution of tetraploid wheat based on variations in 5′ UTR regions of Ppd-A1: evidence of gene flow between emmer and timopheevi wheat

  • Shotaro Takenaka
  • Taihachi Kawahara
Research Article


Previous study showed that tetraploid wheat was divided into two groups (Type AI and Type AII) based on sequences around Ppd-A1 gene (Takenaka and Kawahara in Theor Appl Genet 125(5):999–1014, 2012). That study focused on domesticated emmer wheat and used only 19 wild emmer wheats, so could not be clear the evolutional relationship between Type AI and Type AII. Here, a total of 669 accessions comprising 65 einkorn wheats, 185 wild emmer wheats, 107 hulled emmer wheats, 204 free-threshing (FT) emmer wheats, and 108 timopheevii wheats were studied by PCR assay and DNA sequencing for Type AI/AII. Type AII was an older type than Type AI because all einkorn accessions had Type AII. In wild emmer, Type AI was distributed in the northeast regions of its distribution and Type AII was found to be centered on Israel. A total of 37.4 % of hulled emmer accessions were Type AI, while 92.2 % of FT emmer accessions were Type AI. Differences in the proportion of Type AI/AII in domesticated emmer suggested a strong bottle-neck effect. We also found two MITE-like sequence deletion patterns from a part of Type AII accessions (dic-del and ara-del). Dic-del was found from only Israeli wild emmer accessions and ara-del was found from almost all timopheevii wheat accessions. Only three timopheevii accessions did not have ara-del, and one wild emmer accession and ten hulled emmer accessions had ara-del. These accessions suggested gene flow between emmer and timopheevii wheat.


Domestication Evolution Gene flow Ppd-1 Tetraploid wheat 

Supplementary material

10722_2013_9983_MOESM1_ESM.xls (97 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 97 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Crop Evolution, Plant Germ-plasm Institute, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityMukoJapan

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