Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 59, Issue 8, pp 1673–1685 | Cite as

Phylogenetic relationships, interspecific hybridization and origin of some rare characters of wild soybean in the subgenus Glycine soja in China

  • Ke-Jing Wang
  • Xiang-Hua Li
Research Article


The Glycine subgenus Soja includes two species, cultivated soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merr.)] and the progenitor wild soybean (G. soja). However, a morphologically intermediate form, the semi-wild soybean (G. gracilis), exists between the two species, and its taxonomic position is under debate. In this study, we evaluated phylogenetic relationships and occurrence events within the subgenus Soja based on genetic variation of SSR loci using a set of accessions comprising wild soybeans (≤3.0 g 100-seed weight), semi-wild soybeans (>3.0 g) and soybean landraces (≥4.0 g). The results showed that semi-wild soybean accessions collected in natural fields should be treated as a variant of G. soja and not of G. max, and were genetically differentiated from the soybean landraces, even large-seeded semi-wild soybean accessions (6.01–9.0 g) with seed weights overlapping with or exceeding those of soybean landraces. Evolutionary bottleneck analysis indicated that semi-wild soybean is not a transitional form in the domestication of cultivated soybeans from wild soybean. G. soja contained two genetically differentiated forms, small-seeded type (typical, plus 2.01–2.50 g) and a large-seeded type (2.51–3.0 g). Genetically, the large-seeded wild soybean was closer to the semi-wild soybean, although in morphology it resembled the typical wild soybean. Ancestry analysis confirmed that cultivated soybean genes have introgressed into modern wild soybean populations. The green cotyledon character and other rare characters such as white flower, grey pubescence, no-seed bloom, and coloured seed-coats (brown, green, and yellow) in wild soybean were shown to be involved in introgression from cultivated soybeans.


Evolution Glycine soja Phylogenesis Semi-wild soybean Wild soybean 

Supplementary material

10722_2011_9790_MOESM1_ESM.docx (41 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 41 kb)


  1. Abe J, Hasegawa A, Fukushi H, Mikami T, Ohara M, Shimamoto Y (1999) Introgression between wild and cultivated soybean of Japan revealed by RFLP analysis for chloroplast DNA. Econ Bot 53:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Broich SL, Palmer RG (1980) A cluster analysis of wild and domesticated soybean phenotypes. Euphytica 29:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Broich SL, Palmer RG (1981) Evolutionary studies of the soybean: the frequency and distribution of alleles among collections of Glycine max and G. soja of various origin. Euphytica 30:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buckler ES, Thornsberry JM, Kresovich S (2001) Molecular diversity, structure and domestication of grasses. Genet Res 77:213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen Y, Nelson L (2004) Genetic variation and relationship among cultivated, wild and semi-wild soybean. Crop Sci 44:316–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Close PS, Shoemaker RC, Keim P (1989) Distribution of restriction site polymorphism within the chloroplast genome of the genus Glycine, subgenus Soja. Theor Appl Genet 77:768–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cregan PB, Jarvik T, Bush AL, Shoemaker RC, Lark KG, Kahler AL, Kaya N, Vantoai TT, Lohnes DG, Chung J, Specht JE (1999) An integrated genetic linkage map of the soybean genome. Crop Sci 39:1464–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diamond J (2002) Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature 418:700–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1990) Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus 12:13–15Google Scholar
  10. Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software structure: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14:2611–2620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Felsentein J (1993) PHYLIP (phylogeny inference packge) version 3.5c. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  12. Fukuda Y (1933) Cytological studies on the wild and cultivated Manchurian soybeans. Jap J Bot 6:489–506Google Scholar
  13. Guo J, Wang YS, Song C, Zhou JF, Qiu LJ, Huang HW, Wang Y (2010) A single origin and moderate bottleneck during domestication of soybean (Glycine max): implications from microsatellites and nucleotide sequences. Ann Bot 106:505–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hermann FJ (1962) A revision of the genus Glycine and its immediate allies. USDA Tech Bull 1268:1–79Google Scholar
  15. Hymowitz Y (1970) On the domestication of the soybean. Econ Bot 24:408–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hyten DL, Song QJ, Zhu YL, Choi IY, Nelson RL, Costa JM, Specht JE, Shoemaker RC, Cregan RB (2006) Impacts of genetic bottlenecks on soybean genome diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:16666–16674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kiang YT, Chiang YC, Kaizuma N (1992) Genetic diversity in natural populations of wild soybean in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Heredity 83:325–329Google Scholar
  18. Kuroda Y, Kaga A, Tomooka N, Vaughan A (2006) Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation. Mol Ecol 15:959–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li XH, Wang KJ, Jia JZ (2009) Genetic diversity and differentiation of Chinese wild soybean germplasm (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in geographical scale revealed by SSR markers. Plant Breed 128:658–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu K, Muse SV (2005) PowverMarker: integrated analysis environment for genetic markerdata. Bioinformatics 21:2128–2129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maughan PJ, Saghai Maroof MA, Buss GR (1995) Microsatellite and amplified sequence length polymorphisms in cultivated and wild soybean. Genome 38:715–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nakayama Y, Yamaguchi H (2002) Natural hybridization in wild soybean (Glycine max ssp. soja) by pollen flow from cultivated soybean (Glycine max ssp. max) in a designed population. Weed Biol Manage 2:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89:583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nei M (1987) Molecular Evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Oumar I, Mariac C, Oham JL, Vigouroux Y (2008) Phylogeny and origin of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. BT.) as revealed by microsatellite loci. Theor Appl Genet 117:479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Shannon CE, Weaver W (1949) The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  28. Sisson HD, Brim CA, Levings CS III (1978) Characterization of cytoplasmic diversity in soybeans by restriction endonuclease analysis. Crop Sci 18:991–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Skvortzow BW (1927) The soybean-wild and cultivated in Eastern Asia. Proc Manchurian Res Soc Publ Ser A Nat Hist Sec 22:1–8Google Scholar
  30. Tanksley SD, McCouch SR (1997) Seed banks and molecular maps: unlocking genetic potential from the wild. Science 277:1063–1666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang LZ (2007) The origin, evolution and dissemination of soybeans. In: Wang LZ, Guo QY (eds) Current Soybean in China (in Chinese). Jin Dun Press, Beijing, pp 32–33Google Scholar
  32. Wang LZ, Wu HL, Yao ZC, Lin H (1983) Investigation and research of the wild soybean in Heilongjiang Province. (China) Bull Bot Res 3:116–130Google Scholar
  33. Wang KJ, Li FS, Cheema AA (2001) Studies on the distribution of wild soybean (Glycine soja) in China. Pakistan J Biol Sci 4:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang KJ, Li XH, Li FS (2008) Phenotypic diversity of the big seed type subcollection of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) in China. Genet Resour Crop Evol 55:1335–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang KJ, Li XH, Zhang JJ, Chen H, Zhang ZL, Yu GD (2010) Natural introgression from cultivated soybean (Glycine max) into wild soybean (Glycine soja) with the implications for origin of populations of semi-wild type and for biosafety of wild species in China. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:747–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu B, Xu H, Zhang BC, Lu QH, Wang YM, Li FS (1995) Polymorphism and geographical distribution of seed characters of wild soybean (G. soja) in China. Acta Agron Sin 21:733–739Google Scholar
  37. Yeh FC, Yang RC, Boyle T (1999) POPGENE software package version 1.31 for population genetic analysis, University of AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhao TJ, Gai JY (2004) The origin and evolution of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (in Chinese). Sci Agri Sin 37:954–962Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations