Phenotypic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.) accessions collected in Jordan

Abstract

Wild barley, Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., is the progenitor of cultivated barley. Almost unanimously the center of diversity is considered to be in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, where wild barley grows under a wide range of environmental and climatic conditions. Jordanian wild barley is expected to harbor genes useful for the improvement of cultivated barley, particularly those associated with tolerance to drought. This study evaluated 103 wild barley accessions collected from different areas of Jordan along with 29 cultivated barley genotypes for several morphological and agronomical traits. The Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum C. Koch accessions were grouped into six populations according to the longitude, latitude, altitude, and rainfall zone of the collection site, and the cultivated barley in one population. The evaluation was conducted during the 2004–2005 growing season under field conditions in three locations in Jordan; namely, Khanasri, Ramtha, and Maru with 123.0, 222.9, and 429.2 mm annual rainfall, respectively. We used an unreplicated design with two systematic checks (the cultivars Rum and Mu’ta) each repeated 15 times. The results showed the existence of high variability among the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum C. Koch accessions for most of the traits, especially for plant height, tiller number, days to heading, days to anthesis, peduncle length, and peduncle extrusion. Plant height, earliness, peduncle length, and peduncle extrusion were found to be adaptive traits under drought conditions and several superior genotypes for each trait were identified. Genetic variation within population was much higher than between populations. Clustering of populations was according to their ecological geographical pattern.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Badr A, Mueller K, Schaefer-Pregl EI, Rabey H, Effgen S, Ibrahim HH, Pozzi C, Rohde W, Salamini F (2000) On the origin and domestication history of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Mol Biol Evol 17:499–510

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Baek HJ, Beharav A, Nevo E (2003) Ecological-genomic diversity of microsatellites in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, populations in Jordan. Theor Appl Genet 106:397–410

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Baum M, Grando S, Backes G, Jahoor A, Sabbagh A, Ceccarelli S (2003) QTL for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross ‘Arta’ × H. spontaneum 41-1. Theor Appl Genet 107:1215–1225

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Bekele E (1983) A differential rate of regional distribution of barley flavonoid patterns in Ethiopia, and a view on the center of origin of barley. Hereditas 98:269–280

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Ceccarelli S (1994) Specific adaptation and breeding for marginal conditions. Euphytica 77:205–219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ceccarelli S, Grando S, Van Leur JAG (1987) Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan. Euphytica 36:389–405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ceccarelli S, Grando S, Tutwiler R, Baha J, Martini AM, Salahieh H, Goochild A, Michael MJ (2000) A methodological study on participatory barley breeding: I. Selection phase. Euphytica 111:81–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dreiseitl A, Dinoor A (2004) Phenotypic diversity of barley mildew resistance sources. Genet Resour Crop Evol 51:251–257

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Ellis RP, Foster BP, Robinson D, Handley LL, Gordon DC, Russell JR, Powell W (2000) Wild barley: a source of genes for crop improvement in the 21st century? J Exp Bot 51:9–17

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Faccioli P, Grossi M, Pecchioni N, Vale G, Stanca AM (1998) Barley evolution. In: Scarascia GJ, Pagnotta MA (eds) Italian contribution to plant genetics and breeding. XV Congress of Eucarpia, Viterbo, 21–25 September 1998

  11. Grando S, von Bothmer R, Ceccarelli S (2001) Genetic diversity of barley: use of locally adapted germplasm to enhance yield and yield stability of barley in dry areas. In: Cooper HD, Spillane C, Hodgkin T (eds) Broadening the genetic base of crop production. CABI/FAO/IPGRI, pp 351–372

  12. Grossi M, Giorni E, Rizza F, Stanca MA, Cattivelli L (1998) Wild and cultivated barleys show differences in the expression pattern of a cold-regulated gene family under different light and temperature conditions. Plant Mol Biol 38:1061–1069

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Harlan JR, Zohary D (1966) Distribution of wild wheats and barley. Science 153:1074–1080

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Ivandic V, Hackett CA, Nevo E, Keith R, Thomas WTB, Forster BP (2002) Analysis of sequence repeats (SSRs) in wild barley from the Fertile Crescent: associations with ecology, geography and flowering time. Plant Mol Biol Evol 48:511–527

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Jana S, Pietrzak LN (1988) Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in wild and primitive cultivated barley in center of diversity. Genetics 119:981–990

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Jaradat AA (1991) Grain protein variability among populations of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) from Jordan. Theor Appl Genet 83:164–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Jaradat AA, Shahid M, Al Maskri AY (2004) Genetic diversity in the Batani barley landraces from Oman: I. spike and seed quantitative and qualitative traits. Crop Sci 44:304–315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Koornneef M, Blanco A, Peeters AJM (1997) Genetic approaches in plant physiology. New Phytol 137:1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Korff VM, Wang H, Leon J, Pillen K (2004) Detection of QTL for agronomic traits in an advanced backcross population with introgression from wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). In: Genetic variation for plant breeding, Proceeding of the 17th EUCARPIA General Congress, 8–11 September, 2004, Tulln, pp 207–211

  20. Li JZ, Huang XO, Heinrichs F, Ganal MW (2005) Analysis of QTLs for yield, yield components, and malting quality in a BC3-DH population of spring barley. Theor Appl Genet 110:356–363

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Lu Z, Neumann PM, Tamar K, Nevo E (1999) Physiological characterization of drought tolerance in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from the Judean Desert. http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/bgn/29/a29-09.html

  22. Magurran AE (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton

    Google Scholar 

  23. Molina-Cano JL, Moralejo MA, Igartua E, Romagosa I (1999) Further evidence supporting Morocco as a center of origin of barley. Theor Appl Genet 98:913–918

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Molina-Cano JL, Russell JR, Moralejo MA, Escacena JL, Arias G, Powell W (2005) Chloroplast DNA microsatellite analysis supports a polyphyletic origin for barley. Theor Appl Genet 110:613–619

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Nei M (1973) Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3321–3323

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average hetrozygosity and genetic distance from small number of individuals. Genetics 89:583–590

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  28. Nevo E, Beiles A, Zohari D (1986a) Genetic resources of wild barley in the near east: structure, evaluation and application in breeding. Biol J Linn Soc 27:355–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Nevo E, Beiles A, Kaplan D, Storch N, Zohari D (1986b) Genetic diversity and environmental associations of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum (Poaceae), in Iran. Plant Syst Evol 153:141–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Shakhatreh Y (2006) Genetic diversity assessment among Jordanian wild barley, (Hordeum spontaneum) genotypes and relationship with morphological traits revealed by SSR molecular markers. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman

  31. Singh M, Ceccarelli S, Grando S (1997) Precision of the genotypic correlation estimated from variety trials conducted in incomplete block design. Theor Appl Genet 95:1044–1048

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Singh M, Malhotra RS, Ceccarelli S, Sarker A, Grando S, Erskine W (2003) Spatial variability models to improve dryland field trails. Expl Agric 39:151–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Slatkin M, Barton NH (1989) A comparison of three indirect methods for estimating average levels of gene flow. Evolution 43:1349–1368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Terzi V, Pecchioni N, Faccioli P, Kucera L, Stanca AM (2001) Phyletic relationships within the genus Hordeum using PCR-based markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 48:447–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Vanhala TK, Van Rijn CPE, Buntjer J, Stam P, Nevo E, Poorter H, Van Eeuwijk FA (2004) Environmental, phenotypic and genetic variation of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from Israel. Euphytica 137:297–309

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Volis S, Mendlinger S, Ward D (2002) Adaptive traits of wild barley of Mediterranean and desert origin. Oecologia 133:131–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. von Bothmer R, Van Hintum H, Knüpffer H, Sato K (2003) Diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare), vol XVII. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 129–136

    Google Scholar 

  38. Xu YW (1982) The origin and evolution of cultivated barley in China. Acta Genetica Sinica 9:440–446

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Thanks are extended to the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE) for financing the study and to ICARDA for providing the germplasm and co-financing the laboratory work.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Ceccarelli.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shakhatreh, Y., Haddad, N., Alrababah, M. et al. Phenotypic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.) accessions collected in Jordan. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57, 131–146 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-009-9457-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Abiotic stress
  • Drought
  • Hordeum spontaneum
  • Phenotypic diversity
  • Wild barley