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Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 1029–1046 | Cite as

Identification of artichoke SSR markers: molecular variation and patterns of diversity in genetically cohesive taxa and wild allies

  • Gabriella Sonnante
  • Anna Vittoria Carluccio
  • Angelo De Paolis
  • Domenico Pignone
Research Article

Abstract

A set of 24 microsatellite markers was identified in the artichoke genome, using various approaches. A genomic library allowed the development of 14 SSR markers, whereas the other 10 were obtained from gene intron/UTR regions or from other species. Allelic variation was scored in C. cardunculus (artichoke, cultivated cardoon, and wild cardoon) samples, and in other wild Cynara allies. For the 23 polymorphic loci, a total of 165 alleles were scored, 135 of which in the artichoke primary genepool, and the remaining ones in the other Cynara species. Some allele combinations were able to identify artichoke varietal types, and some alleles were unique to specific groups. This makes these markers potentially useful in product traceability and in contributing to the saturation of genetic maps. The percentage of shared alleles between C. cardunculus taxonomic groups, and Nei’s genetic distances indicated that wild cardoons from the Eastern Mediterranean were more closely related to artichoke and less to cultivated cardoon in comparison to wild cardoons from the Western Mediterranean, and the genetic distance between the two wild cardoon genepools was rather high. The UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic distances revealed that artichokes formed a fairly defined cluster, whereas Eastern wild cardoons occupied another branch, and Western wild cardoons were clustered together with cultivated cardoons. The transferability of microsatellite markers to other Cynara wild species was quite good. Sequencing alleles at three loci showed that, apart from microsatellite length variation, point mutations and insertion/deletions were quite abundant especially when comparing C. cardunculus to the other Cynara species. In the sequenced regions, some SNPs were identified which distinguished artichoke on one side, and cultivated and wild cardoon on the other, while other SNPs were apportioned according to the geographic distribution of Cynara wild species.

Keywords

Artichoke Cardoon Cynara Genetic diversity Microsatellites Wild relatives 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the colleagues who donated seeds, and to Ms. Anita Morgese for DNA sequencing. This study was funded by: CNR, Project ‘AG.P02.004, Banca del DNA vegetale’; CRA-MiPAF, Project ‘FAO-RGV: Implementazione Nazionale del Trattato Internazionale FAO Risorse Genetiche Vegetali’; and EU Project AGRI GEN RES 063, CYNARES.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriella Sonnante
    • 1
  • Anna Vittoria Carluccio
    • 1
  • Angelo De Paolis
    • 2
  • Domenico Pignone
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Council (CNR) – Institute of Plant GeneticsBariItaly
  2. 2.CNR – Institute of Sciences of Food ProductionLecceItaly

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