Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 643–655 | Cite as

Analysis of the geographic distribution and relationships among Peruvian wild species of Arracacia

Research Article


Relationships between Arracacia species were studied according to 28 morphological discriminant characters, in 90 accessions: 83 Arracacia (Arracacia elata, A. incisa and A. xanthorrhiza), and seven accessions of Neonelsonia acuminata, which has been confused with A. elata. The geographic distribution of the Arracacia species was determined from the passport data of the 90 accessions. A. elata was clearly differentiated from N. acuminata according to morphological characteristics. The species A. incisa was more closely related to A. xanthorrhiza. Within A. xanthorrhiza two forms, monocarpic, and polycarpic, were identified. The distribution of wild Arracacia species in Peru is characterized by two main ecological zones: (1) a dry zone, like the western Yunga and western and inter-Andean valleys of the Quechua region (with seasonal rain from November to March), where the species A. incisa and A. xanthorrhiza are present, and (2) a humid zone, like the Eastern Quechua where A. elata is adapted. These informations could be useful to establish strategies for in situ and ex situ conservation and management of germplasm.


Arracacia Ecology Geographic distribution Neonelsonia acuminata Peru Plant genetic resources Taxonomy 



This research was supported by grants from Coopération Universitaire au Développement (CUD) and Direction Générale de la Cooperation Internationale, Belgium.


  1. Blas R (2005) Diversity of Arracacia species in Peru. Ph.D. Thesis., Gembloux Agricultural University, Belgium, p 154Google Scholar
  2. Blas R, Ghislain M, Herrera MR, Baudoin J-P (2007) Genetic diversity analysis of wild Arracacia species according to morphological and molecular markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol (in press)Google Scholar
  3. Brako L, Zarucchi J (1993) Catálogo de las angiospermas y gimnospermas del Perú. Missouri Bot Gard, p 1286Google Scholar
  4. Constance L (1949) The South American species of Arracacia (Umbelliferae) and some related genera. Bull Tor Bot Club 76(1):39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Constance L (1997) An instance of East-West confusion in chinese Umbelliferae, or Arracacia out of Asia. Edinb J Bot 54(1):99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Harris JG, Harris MW (2001) Plant identification terminology. An illustrated glossary, 2nd ed. Spring Lake Publishing, Utah, USA, p 206Google Scholar
  7. Hermann M (1997) Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft). In: Hermann M, Heller J (eds) Andean roots and tubers: Ahipa, arracacha, maca and yacon. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 21. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, p 75–172Google Scholar
  8. Hijmans R, Guarino L, Bussink C, Barrantes I, Rojas E (2002) DIVA-GIS, Version 2. Sistema de Información Geográfica para el Análisis de Datos de Biodiversidad. Manual International Potato Center, Lima, Perú, p 67Google Scholar
  9. Hodge WH (1954) The edible arracacha - a little-known root crop of the Andes. Econ Bot 8(3):195–221Google Scholar
  10. Knudsen SR (2003) Reproduction biology of the Andean root crop arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft var. xanthorrhiza) and the taxonomic status of the South American Arracacia Bancroft species with special emphasis on the position of the cultivated arracacha and related wild species. Ph.D., Thesis. Botanical Section, Department of Ecology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. Copenhagen, Denmark, p 150Google Scholar
  11. Lindley J (1951) Glosología de los términos usados en botánica. Traducido de la versión inglesa y aumentada con la terminología equivalente alemana por J. E. Rothe, Miscelánea N°15. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Instituto Miguel Lillo de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. Tucumán, Argentina, p 125Google Scholar
  12. Mathias ME, Constance L (1962) Arracacia Bancroft. In: Mathias ME, Constance L (eds) Flora of Perú. Field Mus Nat Hist Bot 13(1) part V-A:13–19Google Scholar
  13. National Research Council (1989) Arracacha. In: Lost crops of the Incas. Little known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation. National Academy Press. Washington DC, p 46–55Google Scholar
  14. Pulgar J (1987) Geografía del Perú. Las ocho Regiones Naturales. Novena Edición. Promoción Editorial Inca, S.A. (PEISA), Lima, Perú, p 244Google Scholar
  15. Rohlf F (1994) NTSYS PC: numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis for the IBM PC microcomputers (and compatibles), Version 1.80. User Manual. Stony Brook, New York, USA, p 240Google Scholar
  16. Rohlf F (2000) NTSYS PC: numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis for the IBM PC microcomputers (and compatibles), Version 2.1 User guide. Applied Biostatistics, Stony Brook, New York, USA, p 39Google Scholar
  17. Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) (1995) Colour chart. London, UKGoogle Scholar
  18. Salick J, Merrick LC (1990) Use and maintenance of genetic resources: crops and their wild relatives. In: Ronald Carroll C, Vandermur JH, Rosset PM (eds) Agroecology. Biological resource management. Mc Graw-Hill, NY, USA, p 517–548Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad Nacional AgrariaLima 12Peru
  2. 2.International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Regional Office for the AmericasCaliColombia
  3. 3.Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de GemblouxGemblouxBelgique

Personalised recommendations