Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 397–408 | Cite as

Analysis of genetic diversity in a sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) germplasm collection from Tanzania as revealed by AFLP

  • Abdelhameed Elameen
  • Siri Fjellheim
  • Arild Larsen
  • Odd Arne Rognli
  • Leif Sundheim
  • Susan Msolla
  • Esther Masumba
  • Kiddo Mtunda
  • Sonja S. Klemsdal
Research Article


Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the fifth most important crop in the developing countries after rice, wheat, maize and cassava. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was used to study the genetic diversity and relationships of sweet potato accessions in the germplasm collection of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro and Sugarcane Research Institute, Kibaha, Tanzania. AFLP analysis of 97 sweet potato accessions using ten primer combinations gave a total of 202 clear polymorphic bands. Each one of the 97 sweet potato accessions could be distinguished based on these primer combinations. Estimates of genetic similarities were obtained by the Dice coefficient, and a final dendrogram was constructed with the un-weight pair-group method using arithmetic average. AFLP-based genetic similarity varied from 0.388 to 0.941, with a mean of 0.709. Cluster analysis using genetic similarity divided the accessions into two main groups suggesting that there are genetic relationships among the accessions. Principal Coordinate analysis confirmed the pattern of the cluster analysis. Analysis of molecular variance revealed greater variation within regions (96.19%) than among regions (3.81%). The results from the AFLP analysis revealed a relatively low genetic diversity among the germplasm accessions and the genetic distances between regions were low. A maximally diverse subset of 13 accessions capturing 97% of the molecular markers diversity was identified. We were able to detect duplicates accessions in the germplasm collection using the highly polymorphic markers obtained by AFLP, which were found to be an efficient tool to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships of sweet potato accessions in the germplasm collection in Tanzania.


AFLP Genetic diversity Ipomoea batatas Sweet potato 



The authors would like to thank the staff at the germplasm centers of The Sugarcane Research Institute, Kibaha and at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, for their cooperation and for supplying us with sweet potato accessions used in the study. This work has been partly supported by NORAD (Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, project 021 TARPII-SUA).


  1. Austin DF (1977) Hybrids polyploids in Ipomoea section Batatas. J Hered 68:259–260Google Scholar
  2. Austin DF (1988) The taxonomy, evolution and genetic diversity of sweet potato and related wild species. In: Gregory P (ed) Exploration, maintenance, and utilization of Sweet potato genetic resources. International Potato Center, Lima, Peru, pp. 27–60Google Scholar
  3. Bonants PJM, Hagenaar-de Weerdt M, Man in't Veld WA, Baayen RP (2000) Molecular characterization of natural hybrids of Phytophthora nicotianae and P. cactorum. Phytopathology 90:867–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouwkamp JC (1985) Introduction-Part1. In: Bouwkamp JC (eds), Sweet potato products: A natural resource for the tropics. CRC Press, Inc Boca Raton FLGoogle Scholar
  5. CIP (1999). Sweetpotato Facts, a compendium of key figures and analysis for 33 important sweetpotato-producing countries. International Potato Center, Lima, PeruGoogle Scholar
  6. Connolly AG, Godwin ID, Cooper M, Delacy IH (1994) Interpretation of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker data for fingerprinting sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) genotypes. Theor Appl Genet 88:332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dice LR (1945) Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species. Ecology 26:297–302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eikemo H, Klemsdal SS, Riisberg I, Bonants P, Stensvand A, Tronsmo AM (2004) Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry. Mycological Res 108:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM1 (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131:479–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Excoffier L, Smouse PE (1994) Using allele frequencies and geographic subdivision to reconstruct gene trees within a species molecular variance parsimony. Genetics 136:343–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fajardo DD, La Bonte DR, Jarret RL (2002) Identifying and selecting genetic diversity in Papua New Guinea sweet potato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Germplasm collected as botanical seed. Genet Resour Crop Evol 49:463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. FAO, Production Yearbook (2004) FAE Statistic Series No 134. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  13. Gepts P (1993) The use of molecular and biochemical markers in crop evolution studies. Evol Bio 27:51–94Google Scholar
  14. Gichuki ST, Berenyi M, Zhang DP, Hermann M, Schmidt J, Glossl J, Burg K (2003) Genetic diversity in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) in relationship to geographic sources as assessed with RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 50:429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants. Academic Press, London, p. 892Google Scholar
  16. He GH, Prakash CS, Jarret Rl (1995) Analysis of genetic diversity in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) germplasm collection using DNA amplification fingerprinting. Genome 38:938–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu J, Nakatani M, Lalusin A, Kuranouchi T, Fujimura T (2003) Genetic analysis of sweet potato and wild relatives using Inter-simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs). Breed Sci 53:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huaman Z, Zhang DP (1997) Sweet potato. In: Fuccillo D, Sears L, Stapleton P (eds) Biodiversity in trust. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 29–38Google Scholar
  19. Huaman Z (1999) Botany, origin, evolution and biodiversity of the sweet potato. In: Huaman Z (eds) Sweet potato Germplasm Management Training Manual. International Potato Center, Lima Peru, pp. 1–11Google Scholar
  20. Huaman Z, Aguilar C, Ortiz R (1999) Selecting a Peruvian sweetpotato core collection on the basis of morphological, eco-geographical, and disease and pest reaction data. Theor Appl Genet 98:840–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang JC, Sun M (2000) Genetic diversity and relationships of sweet potato and its wild relatives in Ipomoea series batatas (Convolvulaceae) as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and restriction analysis of chloroplast DNA. Theor Appl Genet 100:1050–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang J, Corke H, Sun M (2002) Highly polymorphic AFLP markers as a complementary tool to ITS sequences in assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) and its wild relatives. Genet Resour Crop Evol 49:541–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hwang SY, Tseng YT, Lo HF (2002) Application of simple sequence repeats in determining the genetic relationships of cultivars used in sweet potato polycross breeding in Taiwan. Sci Hortic 93:215–224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaccard P (1908) Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bull Soc Vaud Sci Nat 44:223–270 Google Scholar
  25. Kapinga R, Ewell PT, Jeremiah SC, Kileo R (1995) Sweet potato in Tanzanian farming and food system: Implications for Research. A farming systems survey report. Tanzania National Root and Tuber Crops and Farming Systems Research Programme and the International Potato Centre, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  26. Kennedy LS, Thompson PG (1991) Identification of sweet-potato cultivars using isozyme analysis. Hortscience 26:300–302Google Scholar
  27. Kuo CG (1991) Conservation and distribution of sweet potato germplasm. In: Dodds JH (eds) In Vitro methods for Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources, Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 123–147Google Scholar
  28. McGregor CE, Lambert CA, Greyling MM, Louw JH, Warnich L (2000) A comparative assessment of DNA fingerprinting techniques (RAPD, ISSR, AFLP and SSR) in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) germplasm. Euphytica 113:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mok I, Zhang D, Carey E (1997) Sweet potato breeding strategy of CIP. In LaBonte D.R., Yamashita M., and Mochida H. (eds.) Proceedings of international workshop on sweet potato production system towards the 21st Century. Dec 1997:9–27Google Scholar
  30. National Research Council (1993) Agricultural crop issues and policies: managing global genetic resources, vol. I. National Research Council (U.S.A.), Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  31. Powell W, Morgante M, Andre C, Hanafey M, Vogel J, Tingey S, Rafalski A (1996) The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. Mol Breed 3:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Prakash CS, He GH, Jarret RL (1996) DNA marker-based study of genetic relatedness in United States sweetpotato cultivars. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 121:1059–1062Google Scholar
  33. Rao VR, Debouck T, Iwanga M (1994) The role of international organisations in root and tuber crop conservation. In: The first ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan International Workshop on Genetic Resources – Root and Tuber Crops, 15–17 March 1994, Tsukuba, MAFF, Japan, pp. 7–22 Google Scholar
  34. Rohlf FJ (2000) NTSYS-pc, numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, v.2.02. New York: Exeter softwareGoogle Scholar
  35. Sagredo B, Hinrichsen P, López H, Cubillos A, Munoz C (1998) Genetic variation of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivated in Chile determined by RAPDs. Euphytica 101:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schneider R, Roessli D, Excoffier L (2000) Arlequin: A software for Population Genetics Data Analysis, Version 2.000 Genetic and Biometry Laboratory. Department of Anthropology, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  37. Schultheis JR, Cantliffe DJ, Bryan HH (1994) Early plant-growth and yield of sweet-potato grown from seed, vegetative cuttings, and somatic embryos J Amer Soc Hort Sci 119:1104–1111Google Scholar
  38. Sneath PA, Sokal RR (1973) Numerical taxonomy. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  39. Tseng YT, Lo HF, Hwang SY (2002) Genotyping and assessment of genetic relationships in elite polycross breeding cultivars of sweet potato in Taiwan based on SAMPL polymorphisms. Bot Bull Acad Sinica 43:99–105Google Scholar
  40. Ugent D, Peterson LW (1988) Archaeological remains of potato and sweet potato in Peru. CIP Circular 16:1–10Google Scholar
  41. Vaughan JG, Geissler CA (1997) The new Oxford book of food plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  42. Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, van de Lee T, Hornes M, Freijters A, Pot J, Peleman J, Kuiper M, Zabeau M (1995) AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23:4407–4414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wambugu FM (2003) Development and transfer of genetically modified virus-resistant sweet potato for subsistence farmers in Kenya. Nutrition Reviews 61:110–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Woolfe JA (1992) Sweet potato, an untapped food resource. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang D, Ghislain M, Huaman Z, Golmirzaie A, Hijmans R (1998) RAPD variation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cultivars from South America and Papua New Guinea. Genet Resour Crop Evol 45:271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang D, Cervantes J, Huaman EC, Ghislain M (2000) Assessing genetic diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cultivars from tropical America using AFLP. Genet Resour Crop Evol 47:659–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang D, Rossel G, Kriegner A, Hijmans R (2004) AFLP assessment of diversity in sweet potato from Latin America and the Pacific region: Its implications on the dispersal of the crop. Genet Resour Crop Evol 51:115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdelhameed Elameen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Siri Fjellheim
    • 2
  • Arild Larsen
    • 3
  • Odd Arne Rognli
    • 2
  • Leif Sundheim
    • 1
  • Susan Msolla
    • 4
  • Esther Masumba
    • 5
  • Kiddo Mtunda
    • 5
  • Sonja S. Klemsdal
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioforsk–Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental ResearchPlant Health and Plant Protection Division, Department of Genetics and BiotechnologyAasNorway
  2. 2.Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesNorwegian University of Life SciencesAasNorway
  3. 3.Graminor ASIlsengNorway
  4. 4.Department of Crop Science and ProductionSokoine University of AgricultureChuo KikuuTanzania
  5. 5.Root/Tuber Crops ProgrammeSugarcane Research InstituteKibahaTanzania

Personalised recommendations