Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 54, Issue 6, pp 1211–1217 | Cite as

Zizania latifolia Turcz. cultivated in China

  • H. B. Guo
  • S. M. Li
  • J. Peng
  • W. D. Ke
Original Paper


Zizania latifolia, which belongs to the tribe Oryzeae, has been cultivated for more than 2000 years and has historically been used in China mainly as an aquatic vegetable. In China, the largest area under cultivation of this plant is located in the regions surrounding Tai Lake, in the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Two main types of cultivars have been developed, in one the shoots can be harvested only once, in the fall; in the other, the shoots may be harvested twice in the fall and once the following summer. Z. latifolia can be bred and conserved through clonal propagation as a means of preventing infection of flowering stems by the epiphyte Ustilago esculenta. At the end of the harvest period, healthy individuals and the plants with black spots in the shoots are removed, and those with a healthy clone will be identified and selected as ‘seed’ for the next year.


Agronomical characters China Cultivars Zizania latifolia 


  1. Asada T, Lan NK, Manatunge J (2005a) Effects of selfthinning of shoots on the nutrient budgets of Zizania latifolia. Hydrobiologia 537:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asada T, Fujino T, Manatunge J (2005b) Morphological adaptation of emergent plants to water flow: a case study with Typha angustifolia, Zizania latifolia and Phragmites australis. Freshw Biol 50:1991–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai WM (2003) Utilization of Jiaobai, Zizania caduciflora L., leaf as culture substrate of edible fungi. Acta Agric Zhejiang 15(3):189–192Google Scholar
  4. Chan YS, Thrower LB (1980) The host–parasite relationship between Zizania caduciflora Turcz. and Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. New Phytol 85:201–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen HJ, Gao HY, Mao JL, Yang JT, Chen YQ, Zhu MY (2003a) Regulation of storage and keeping fresh of Jiaobai, Zizania caduciflora L. Acta Agric Zhejiang 15(3):200–204Google Scholar
  6. Chen JM, Yu XP, Zheng XS, Xu HX, Lu ZX, Zhang JF (2003) Biological performances of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker fed on Jiaobai, Zizania caduciflora, and rice plants. Acta Agric Zhejiang 15(3):139–143Google Scholar
  7. Chen SL (1991) A systematic and evolutionary study of Zizania L. (Gramineae)-gross morphology. Bull Bot Res 11(2):59–73Google Scholar
  8. Chen SL, Shu P (1991) A systematic and evolutionary study of Zizania L. (Gramineae)-pollen morphology. Acta Phytotaxon Sinica 29(1):52–59Google Scholar
  9. Chen SL, Xu KX (1994) A study on cladistic taxonomy of Zizania L. (Gramineae). Bull Bot Res 14(4):385–393Google Scholar
  10. Chen SL, Jin YX, Wu ZJ (1990) Studies on the systematic and evolutionary of Zizania L. (Gramineae)-leaf epidermis. J Wuhan Bot Res 8:217–221Google Scholar
  11. Chen WX, Gao HY, Zhou YJ, Zhu MY, Zhe DL (2003b) Effects of plant growth regulators on physiological quality of preserves Jiaobai, Zizania caduciflora L. Acta Agric Zhejiang 15(3):185–188Google Scholar
  12. Chen ZL (2002) The research on introduction and cultivation of Chinese wild rice shoots in the Washington region of America. J Wuhan Bot Res 20(1):43–47Google Scholar
  13. Cheng LJ, Guo DP, Zhu ZJ, Sun YZ (2004) Study on the biochemical changes during stem gall formation in Zizania latifolia. Acta Agric Nucl Sinica 18(6):457–461Google Scholar
  14. Deng CR, Zheng CL, Zhu CX, Du LJ (2003) Exploring two cultivation models of Jiaobai-fish and Jiaobai-duck in Zhejiang province. Acta Agric Zhejiang 15(3):205–208Google Scholar
  15. E Natural Health Center (2006) The Introduction of Zizania latifolia. Retrieved May 20 from
  16. Gao HY, Yang JT, Chen HJ, Mao JL, Zhou YJ, Yuan Y (2003) Effects of different keeping fresh agent and keeping fresh membrane processing on the storage life of cleaning Jiaobai, Zizania caduciflora L. Acta Agric Zhejiang 15(3):181–184Google Scholar
  17. Jiang JZ, Zhang WP, Cao BS, Zhou XY, Han QS (1998) Study on main diversity between unpregnant water bamboo and normal water bamboo. J Jiangsu Agric Coll 19(2):77–80Google Scholar
  18. Jiang JZ, Qiu JJ, Cao BS, Li LL, Xu XC (2001) Changes of the dry weight, fresh weight and starch content in the upground parts of Zizania latifolia. J Yangzhou Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 4(4):39–42Google Scholar
  19. Jiang JZ, Qiu JJ, Cao BS, Han XQ, Zhang Q, Lin XC, Zhu QS (2003a) Studies on changes of contents of N, P, K and protein of different parts in Zizania latifolia. J Yangzhou Univ (Agric Life Sci Ed) 24(1):67–70Google Scholar
  20. Jiang JZ, Cao BS, Qiu JJ, Han XQ, Zhang Q, Zhu QS (2003b) Studies on accumulation and allocation of carbohydrate in Zizania latifolia. Acta Hortic Sinica 30(5):535–539Google Scholar
  21. Jiang JZ, Qiu JJ, Han XQ, Cao BS, Zhu QS (2004) Changes of endogenous hormone contents of different parts during development of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). J Wuhan Bot Res 22(3):245–250Google Scholar
  22. Jiang JZ, Cao BS, Qiu JJ, Zhu QS (2005a) Studies of biomass accumulation of different parts in main tiller of Zizania latifolia. China Veg 12:16–19Google Scholar
  23. Jiang JZ, Cao BS, Huang KF, Zhang Q, Han XQ, Zhu QS (2005b) Changes of NSC, enzymes and endogenous hormones during Zizania gall’s swelling. Acta Hortic Sinica 32(1):134–137Google Scholar
  24. Jiang CL, Fan XQ, Zhang YB (2005c) Accumulation of non-point source pollutants in ditch wetland and their uptake and purification by plants. Chinese J Appl Ecol 16(7):1351–1354Google Scholar
  25. Ke WD, Kong QD, Peng J, Yang BG (1997) The comprehensive evaluation of Zizania latifolia germplasm accessions. China Veg1:9–12Google Scholar
  26. Ke WD, Zhou GL, Peng J, Huang XF, Liu YP, Li SM (2000a) Hierarchical cluster analysis and comprehensive evaluation of Zizania latifolia germplasm. China Veg 6:18–21Google Scholar
  27. Ke WD, Huang XF, Zhou GL, Li SM, Ye YY (2000b) Genetic analysis of quantitative traits of Zizania latifolia. Changjiang Veg 5:28–30Google Scholar
  28. Ke WD, Zhou GL, Fu XF, Huang XF, Kong QD (2003) A new double-harvest water bamboo cultivar “Ejiao No.2”. China Veg 6:17–19Google Scholar
  29. Kong QD, Ke WD, Yang BG (1994) The preliminary classification of Zizania latifolia germplasm accessions. China Seed 4:1–4Google Scholar
  30. Lee DB, Lee KB, Kim CH, Na SY (2004) Environmental assessment of water, sediment and plants in the Mankyeong River, ROK. Environ Geochem Health 26:135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li X (2005) How to keep and store water bamboo shoots fresh? Shanghai Veg 2:74–76Google Scholar
  32. Liang W, Wu ZB, Zhan FC, Deng JQ (2004) Seasonal variation of macrophytes root-zone microorganisms and purification effect in the constructed wetland system. J Lake Sci 16(4):312–317Google Scholar
  33. Liu SX, Yan XM, Ding JC, Sun YW (2001) The measures of continuable development for vegetable production in mountain area. China Veg 5:38–39Google Scholar
  34. Omokawa H, Murata H, Kobayashi S (2003) Chiral responses of Oryzeae and Paniceae plants in α-methylbenzyl-3-p-tolyl urea agar medium. Pest Manage Sci 60:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pan FS, He SL, Chen SL (1993) A systematic and evolutionary study of Zizania L. (Gramineae)-chemical components of the herb. Bull Bot Res 13(4):399–403Google Scholar
  36. Qiu JJ, Jiang JZ, Cao BS, Li LL, Xu XC, Han XQ (2002) Content and change trend of N, P, K in above ground organs of Zizania latifolia. J Hubei Agric Coll 22(2):122–125Google Scholar
  37. Rao LB, Sun J, Zhu JQ, Xiong ZL, Zhu K (2004) The cultivated methods of Zizania latifolia in mountain area. Shanghai Veg 5:35–36Google Scholar
  38. Shu P, Chen SL, Zhong WY (1990) A systematic and evolutionary study of Zizania L (Gramineae)-epidermal features of pistillate lemma. Guihaia 10(2):107–114Google Scholar
  39. Tan MH (1995) The formation of ‘male plant’ and ‘black plant’ of Zizania latifolia and their prevention. Hunan Agric 1:10Google Scholar
  40. Thrower L B, Chan YS (1980) Gansun: a cultivated host–parasite combination from China. Econ Bot 34(1):20–26Google Scholar
  41. Wu ZH, Yu D (2004) The effects of competition on growth and biomass allocation in Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze. Growing in microcosm. Hydrobiologia 527:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu AF, Lu WM, Chen XH, Zhou SL (2005) Taking the advantage of mountain area to develop the industrialization of Zizania latifolia. Shanghai Agric Sci Technol 1:8–9Google Scholar
  43. Xi YF, Luo ZS, Hu QX (2001) Effect of GA3 on postharvest physiology of water bamboo shoot. Acta Agric Universit Jiang 23(2):197–199Google Scholar
  44. Xiao HJ, Xue FS, Liu YQ, Zhu XF (2005) Comparison of photoperiodic response between rice and water oat populations of Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Acta Entomol Sinica 48(5):749–753Google Scholar
  45. Xing XC (2002) Treating disease using Zizania latifolia. Vegetable 11:41–42Google Scholar
  46. Xu HX, Yu XP, Lu ZX, Chen JM, Zheng XS, Tao LY, Bo WL (2001) Study on the biology of over-wintered striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Acta Agric Zhejiang 13(3):157–160Google Scholar
  47. Yang AM (2003) The reason of forming ‘male plant’ of Zizania latifolia and the measures of prevention. Anhui Agric 9:15Google Scholar
  48. You XL (2006) The wrong translation of Zizania latifolia and wild rice. Retrieved May 20 from
  49. Yu XP, Zheng XS, Xu HX, Lu ZX, Chen JM, Tao LY (2002) A study on the dispersal of lycosid spider, Pirata supiraticus between rice and Zizania fields. Acta Entomol Sinica 45(5):636–640Google Scholar
  50. Yu XP, Li JR, Shi JM, Deng SQ, Deng CR, Wu C, Li BF (2003) The aquatic vegetable, Jiaobai (Zizania caduciflora L.) and its safe production in Zhejiang Province. Acta Agric Zhejiang 15(3):109–117Google Scholar
  51. Yu XP, Zhang JF, Lu ZX, Chen JM, Zheng XS, Xu HX, Chen LZ (2005) DNA polymorphism of 12 selected water oat varieties (Zizania caduciflora) collected from Zhejiang. Bull Sci Technol 21(2):137–141Google Scholar
  52. Yu YN (1962) Study on the materials secreted by Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. in Zizania latifolia. Acta Bot Sinica 4:339–350Google Scholar
  53. Zhai CK, Lu CM, Zhang XQ, Sun GJ, Lorenz KJ (2001) Comparative study on nutritional value of Chinese and North American wild rice. J Food Compos Anal 14:371–382Google Scholar
  54. Zhang RS, Zhou Q, Zhang J, Shi YP (2003a) Study on nitrogen removal treating agriculture wastewater in subsurface constructed wetland. Huan Jing Ke Xue 24(1):113–116Google Scholar
  55. Zhang RS, Zhou Q, Shi YP, Zhang XF (2003b) Phosphorus removal of agriculture wastewater through subsurface constructed wetland. Huan Jing Ke Xue 24(4):105–108Google Scholar
  56. Zheng XS, Yu XP, Lu ZX, Chen JM (1999) Dispersal patterns of natural enemies of rice plant hoppers between Zizania and rice fields. Acta Agric Zhejiang 11(6):9–13Google Scholar
  57. Zhou T, Xu SY, Wang Z, Sun DW (2002) Effect of modified atmosphere package on quality changes in minimally processed water bamboo. Food Sci Technol 5:64–66Google Scholar
  58. Zhu MY, Gao HY (2005) More methods on keeping fresh and processing of water bamboo shoots. Vegetables 7:34–35Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, institute of Biodiversity ScienceFudan UniversityShanghaiP.R. China
  2. 2.National Garden of Aquatic VegetableWuhan Institute of Vegetable ScienceHubeiP.R. China

Personalised recommendations