Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 543–554 | Cite as

Simple sequence repeats marker polymorphism in emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank): Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation

  • Yifru Teklu
  • K. Hammer
  • M. S. Röder


Genetic diversity was investigated in 73 accessions of emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) from 11 geographical regions using a set of 29 simple-sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite) markers, representing at least two markers for each chromosome. The SSR primers amplified a total of 357 different alleles with an average of 12.31 alleles per locus. The number of fragments detected by each primer ranged between 6 (Xgwm1066) and 21 (Xgwm268). Null alleles were detected in nine of the 29 primers used. A high level of gene diversity index was observed. Across the 29 primers, gene diversity ranged from 0.60 (Xgwm46) to 0.94 (Xgwm655), with a mean of 0.82. There was a highly significant correlation (r=0.882; p<0.01) between gene diversity index and the number of loci, showing the number of loci per se is a strong indicator of diversity. Analysis of genetic diversity within and among eleven geographical regions revealed most of the genetic diversity of the total sample resided within regions. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst = 0.27) showed that the genetic variation within and among the 11 geographical regions was 73 and 27%, respectively. High value of mean number of alleles per locus was found in Iran (4.86) followed by Morocco (4.10) and Armenia (4.03). On the contrary, lower mean number of alleles per locus was detected in Yemen (2.83). The average gene diversity index across regions ranged from 0.52 (Slovakia) to 0.67 (Morocco) with an average of 0.60. Multivariate techniques of principal component analysis and clustering were employed to examine genetic relationship among the 73 emmer wheat accessions vis-à-vis geographical regions of collections. The genetic distance coefficients for all possible 55 pairs of regional comparisons ranged from 0.63 (between Iran and Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, Georgia and Slovakia) to 0.97 (between Morocco and Yemen, Spain and Georgia, and Turkey and Iran) with a mean of 0.82. From the PCA results, a two dimensional plot of PC1 versus PC2 was constructed. The scatter plot of the first two principal components which explained altogether 27% of the total variation depicted the presence of a clear pattern of geographical differentiation except in few cases like accessions from Caucasian region. Similar pattern of genetic relationships among accessions was observed in cluster analysis. The study provided genetic information of emmer wheat in relation to geographical regions of origin. The information could be utilized in crop improvement, germplasm conservation programs, and in further investigation.

Key words

Emmer wheat Gene differentiation Genetic diversity Microsatellites Tetraploid wheats Triticum dicoccon 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Crop Science, Agro-biodiversity DepartmentUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)GaterslebenGermany

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