Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 475–482 | Cite as

ISSR Variation in Olive-tree Cultivars from Morocco and other Western Countries of the Mediterranean Basin

  • M. Essadki
  • N. Ouazzani
  • R. Lumaret
  • M. Moumni


In olive tree (Olea europaea L.), 12 varieties (or cultivars) representing the main domesticated material used in Morocco and 19 olive cultivars used extensively in five countries of the western Mediterranean Basin, were analysed using inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers which had never been used previously for extensive discrimination of cultivars. Four selected primers produced a total of 26 polymorphic reproducible amplification fragments. Combinations of these ISSR markers allowed to identify 25 of the 31 cultivars. Two additional combinations were distinguished, each corresponding to three Moroccan cultivars or local varieties. Evidence of a multiclonal composition in the widely cultivated variety ‘Picholine marocaine’ was obtained by the identification of three genotypes within the four morphologically distinct clones analysed in the variety. In the UPGMA phenogram based on the proportion of shared ISSR fragments, five groups of cultivars were distinguished at the 40% critical value of similarity. Four of the groups contained varieties from various geographic origins, as the consequence of successive human migrations which favoured olive dispersion throughout the Mediterranean Basin. However, the fifth group gathered together 9 of the 12 Moroccan cultivars and very few cultivated clones from Greece and Spain. The results suggest that most of the Moroccan cultivars are closely related and likely originated from local domestication.


Cultivar identification and classification Domestication of Moroccan olive tree ISSR markers Olea europaea


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angiolillo, A, Mencuccini, M., Baldoni, L. 1999Olive genetic diversity assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphismsTheor. Appl. Genet.98411421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barranco, D., Cimato, A., Fiorino, P., Rallo, L., Touzani, A., Castañeda, C., Serafin, F., Trujillo, I. 2000World Catalogue of Olive VarietiesConsejo Oleicola InternationalMadridGoogle Scholar
  3. Belaj A., Satovic Z., Cipriani G., Baldoni L., Testolin R., Rallo L. and Trujillo I. 2003. Comparative study of the discriminating capacity of RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers and their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in olive. Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).Google Scholar
  4. Belaj, A., Satovic, Z., Rallo, L., Trujillo, I. 2002Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphism DNATheor. Appl. Genet.105638644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Belaj, A., Trujillo, I., Rallo, L. 2001Polymorphism and discrimination capacity of randomly amplified polymorphic markers in an olive germplasm bankJ. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.1266471Google Scholar
  6. Besnard, G., Bervillé, A. 2000Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms. C.R. Acad. Sci. ParisLife Sci.323173181Google Scholar
  7. Besnard, G., Breton, C., Baradat, P., Khadari, B., Bervillé, A. 2001aCultivar identification in olive Based on RAPD MaekersJ. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.126668675Google Scholar
  8. Besnard, G., Baradat, P., Bervillé, A. 2001bGenetic relationships in the olive (Olea europaea L.) reflect multilocal selection of cultivarsTheor. Appl. Genet.102251258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronzini de Caraffa, V., Giannettini, J., Gambotti, C., Maury, J. 2002Genetic relationships between cultivated and wild olives of Corsica and Sardinia using RAPD markersEuphytica123263271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carriero, F., Fontanazza, G., Cellini, F., Giorio, G. 2002Identification of simple sequence repeats (SSR) in olive (Olea europaea L.)Theor. Appl. Genet.104301307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Claros, M.G., Crespillo, M.L., Aguilar, M.L., Canovas, F.M. 2000DNA fingerprinting and classification of geographically related genotypes of olive-tree (Olea europaea L.)Euphytica116131142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ciferri, R. 1950Dati ed ipotesi sull’origine e l’evoluzione dell’olivoOlearia1114122Google Scholar
  13. Cipriani, G., Marrazzo, M.T., Marconi, R., Cimato, A. 2002Microsatellite markers isolated in olive (Olea europaea L.) are suitable for individual fingerprinting and reveal polymorphism within ancient cultivarsTheor. Appl. Genet.104223228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Contento, A., Ceccarelli, M., Gelati, M.T., Maggini, F., Baldoni, L., Cionini, P.G. 2002Diversity of Olea genotypes and the origin of cultivated olivesTheor. Appl. Genet.10412291238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fang, D.Q., Roose, M.L. 1997Identification of closely related Citrus cultivars with ISSR markersTheor. Appl. Genet.95408417Google Scholar
  16. Fang, D.Q., Roose, M.L., Federici, C.T. 1997Fingerprinting trifoliate orange germoplasm accessions with isozymeRFLPs and ISSR markersTheor. Appl. Genet.95211219Google Scholar
  17. Gemas, V.J.V., Rijo-Johansen, M.J., Fevereiro, P. 2002Intra-variability of the Portuguese olive Cultivar Galega Vulgar expressed by RAPD, ISSR and SPARActa Hort.586175178Google Scholar
  18. Gottlieb, L.D. 1977Electrophoretic evidence and plant systematicAnn. Missouri Bot. Gard.64161180Google Scholar
  19. Hamrik, J.L., Godt, M.J.W., Sherman-Broyles, S.L. 1992Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant speciesNew Forests695124Google Scholar
  20. Hauville, A. 1953La répartition des variétés d’olivier en Algérie et ses conséquences pratiquesBull Soc des Agricult. d’Algérie58018Google Scholar
  21. Hess, J., Kadereit, J.W., Vargas, P. 2000The colonisation history of Olea europaea L. in Macaronesia based on internal transcribed spacer (RAPD), and (ISSR)Mol. Ecol.9857868CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Idrissi, A., Ouazzani, N. 2003Apport des descripteurs morphologiques à l’inventaire et à l’identification des variétés d’olivierPlant Genetic Resour. Newslett.136110Google Scholar
  23. Jaccard, P. 1908Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution floraleBull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat.44223270Google Scholar
  24. Khadari, B., Breton, C., Moutier, N., Roger, J.P., Besnard, G., Bervillé, A., Dosba, F. 2003The use of molecular markers for germplasm management in a French olive collectionTheor. Appl. Genet.106521529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Khadari, B., Moutier, N., Dosba, F. 2001Approche moléculaire de caractérisation des variétés françaises d’olivier: construction d’une base de données de génotypes de référenceOlivae872932Google Scholar
  26. Lumaret, R., Ouazzani, N., Michaud, H., Villemur, P. 1997Cultivated olive and oleaster: two very closely connected partners of the same species (Olea europaea L.): evidence from enzyme polymorphismBocconea73942Google Scholar
  27. Merkuria, G.T., Collins, G.C., Sedgley, M. 1999Genetic variability between different accessions of some common commercial olive cultivarsJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.74309314Google Scholar
  28. Ouazzani, N., Lumaret, R., Idrissi, A., El Ghazi, N. 2002Varietal structure of Moroccan Olive germoplasm: evidence from genetics markers and morphological characteristicsActa Hort.586233236Google Scholar
  29. Ouazzani, N., Lumaret, R., Villemur, P. 1995Apport du polymorphisme alloenzymatique à l’identification variétale de l’olivier (Olea europaea L.)Agronomie153137Google Scholar
  30. Ouazzani, N., Lumaret, R., Villemur, P. 1996Genetic variation in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in MoroccoEuphytica91920Google Scholar
  31. Ouazzani, N., Lumaret, R., Villemur, P., Giusto, F. 1993Leaf allozyme variation in cultivated and wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.)J. Heredity843442Google Scholar
  32. Pasqualone, A., Caponio, F., Blanco, A. 2001Inter-Simple Sequences Repeat DNA markers for identification of drupes from different Olea europaea L. cultivarsEur. Food Res. Technol.213240243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pontikis, C.A., Loukas, M., Kousounis, G. 1980The use of biochimical markers to distinguitsh olive cultivarsJ. Hort. Sci.55333343Google Scholar
  34. Rallo, P. 2001Desarollo y aplicacion de microsatélites en olivo (Olea europaea L.)Universidad de CordobaEspañaTesis DoctoralGoogle Scholar
  35. Rallo, P., Dorado, G., Martin, A. 2000Development of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in olive tree (Olea europaeaL.)Theor. Appl. Genet.101984989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rohlf, F.J. 2000Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis Systemversion 2.11aExeter SoftwareSetauket, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Rugini E. and Lavee S. 1992. In: Hammerschlag F.A. and Litz R.E. (eds.), Olive in Biotechnologiy of Perennial Fruit Crops. Cambridge University Press, 371–382.Google Scholar
  38. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. 1989Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory ManualCold Spring Harbor Lab. PressCold Spring Harbor, New-YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Sanz-Cortés, F., Badenes, M.L., Paz, S., Iñiguez, A., Llacer, G. 2001Molecular characterisation of olive cultivars using RAPD markersJ. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.126712Google Scholar
  40. Sefc, K.M., Lopes, M.S., Mendouça, D., RodriguesDos Santos, M., LaimerDaCâmara Machado, M., daCâmara Machado, A. 2000Identification of microsatellites loci in olive (Olea europaea) and their characterization in Italian and Iberian olive treesMol. Ecol.911711193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sneath, P.H.A., Sokal, R.R. 1973Numerical TaxonomyFreeman and Company PublishersSan FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  42. Torres, A.M., Weeden, N.F., Martin, A. 1993Linkage among isozymeRFLP and RAPD markers in Vicia fabaTheor. Appl. Genet.85937945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tous, J., Romero, A., Barranco, D. 1990Olive cultivars in Catalonia (Spain)Acta Hort.286129132Google Scholar
  44. Trujillo, I., Rallo, L., Arus, P. 1995Identifying olive cultivars by isozyme analysisJ. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.120318324Google Scholar
  45. Turrill, W.B. 1951Wild and cultivated olivesKew Bull3439442Google Scholar
  46. Vargas, P., Kadereit, J.W. 2001Molecular fingerprinting evidence (ISSR) for a wild status of Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) in the Eurosiberian North of the Iberian PeninsulaFlora196142152Google Scholar
  47. Wolfe, A.D.Liston, A.Soltis, D.E.Soltis, P.Doyle, J.J. eds. 1998Contributions of PCR-Based Methods to Plant Systematics and Evolutionary Biology: Plant Molecular Systematics II: DNA SequencingKluwer Academic PublishersBoston, Dordrecht, and London4386Google Scholar
  48. Zohary, D., Spiegel-Roy, P. 1975Beginning of fruits growing in the Old WorldScience187319327Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Essadki
    • 1
  • N. Ouazzani
    • 1
  • R. Lumaret
    • 2
  • M. Moumni
    • 3
  1. 1.Equipe Olivier, Département d’Arboriculture/Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de MeknèsMeknèsMorocco
  2. 2.Groupe de Génétique des populations végétales, Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CEFE-CNRSMontpellier Cedex 05France
  3. 3.Département de Biologie, Faculté des SciencesUniversité Moulay IsmailMeknèsMorocco

Personalised recommendations