Glycosaminoglycans from fish swim bladder: isolation, structural characterization and bioactive potential
The swim bladder of fish is an internal gas-filled organ that allows fish to control their buoyancy and swimming depth. Fish maws (the dried swim bladders of fish) have been used over many centuries as traditional medicines, tonics and a luxurious gourmet food in China and Southeast Asia. Little is known about the structural information of polysaccharides comprising this important functional material of fish tissue. In the present study, the total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) from fish maw was characterized. Two GAGs were identified, chondroitin sulfate (CS, having a molecular weight of 18–40 kDa) and heparan sulfate (HS), corresponding to 95% and 5% of the total GAG, respectively. Chondroitinase digestion showed that the major CS GAG was composed of ΔUA-1 → 3-GalNAc4S (59.7%), ΔUA-1 → 3-GalNAc4,6S (36.5%), ΔUA-1 → 3-GalNAc6S (2.2%) and ΔUA-1 → 3-GalNAc (1.6%) disaccharide units. 1H–NMR analysis and degradation with specific chondroitinases, both CS-type A/C and CS-type B were present in a ratio of 1.4:1. Analysis using surface plasmon resonance showed that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 bound to the CS fraction (KD = 136 nM). These results suggest that this CS may be involved in FGF-signal pathway, mediating tissue repair, regeneration and wound healing. The CS, as the major GAG in fish maw, may have potential pharmacological activity in accelerating wound healing.
KeywordsGlycosaminoglycans Fish maw Compositional analysis Chondroitin sulfate Heparan sulfate Disaccharides FGF-2
fibroblast growth factor
gel permeation chromatography
high performance liquid chromatography
molecular weight cut-off
nuclear magnetic resonance
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
size exclusion chromatography
surface plasmon resonance
United States Pharmacopeia
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants HL125371, GM38060, HL096972, HL062244 and HL136271.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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