Bacterial species-characteristic profiles of molecular species, and the antigenicity of phospholipids and glycolipids in symbiotic Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species
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Human symbiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) in the intestines, Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) in skin and Streptococcus salivalis (SS) in the oral cavity, contain dihexaosyl diglycerides (DH-DG) in concentrations equivalent to those of phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), together with mono- to tetrahexaosyl DGs. The molecular species, as the combination of fatty acids in the DG moiety, were revealed to be bacterial species-characteristic, but to be similar between glycolipids and phospholipids in individual bacteria, the major ones being 16:0 and cy19:0 for LR, ai15:0 and ai17:0 for SE, and 16:0 and 18:1 for SS, respectively. The carbohydrate structures of DH-DGs were also bacterial species-characteristic, being Galα1-2Glcα for LR, Glcβ1-6Glcβ for SE, and Glcα1-2Glcα for SS, respectively. Also, bacterial glycolipids were revealed to provide antigenic determinants characteristic of bacterial species on immunization of rabbits with the respective bacteria. Anti-L. johnsonii antiserum intensely reacted with tri- and tetrahexaosyl DGs, in which Galα was bound to DH-DG through an α1-6 linkage, as well as with DH-DG from LR. Although anti-SE antiserum preferentially reacted with DH-DG from SE, anti-SS antiserum reacted with DH-DG from SS and, to a lesser extent, with DH-DGs from LR and SE. But, both anti-SE and anti-SS antiserum did not react at all with monohexaosyl DG or glycosphingolipids with the same carbohydrates at the nonreducing terminals. In addition, 75 % of human sera, irrespective of the ABO blood group, were found to contain IgM to tri- and tetrahexaosyl DGs from LR, but not to DH-DGs from LR, SE and SS.
KeywordsSymbiotic bacteria Glycerophospholipids Glyceroglycolipids Sphingoglycolipids Anti-bacterial antiserum TLC-immunostaining
Abbreviations: The nomenclature for glycosphingolipids is based on the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature .
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