General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 449–463 | Cite as

A new point of view on the fifth force in \(4D\) physics

Research Article


The purpose of the paper is to define and study, in the presence of the electromagnetic potentials, the fifth force induced by the fifth dimension in the \(4D\) physics. A \(4D\) tensor calculus and the Riemannian horizontal connection on a \(5D\) general Kaluza–Klein space, are the main tools in our study. We prove that the fifth force does not violate the basic concepts in \(4D\) physics. Our approach is different from what is known so far in literature.


Equations of motion Fifth force General relativity  Kaluza–Klein theory 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsKuwait UniversityKuwait CityKuwait

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