Advertisement

General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 42, Issue 9, pp 2151–2176 | Cite as

On modeling galaxy-scale strong lens systems

  • Charles R. Keeton
Review Article

Abstract

I review methods for modeling gravitational lens systems comprising multiple images of a background source surrounding a foreground galaxy. In a Bayesian framework, the likelihood is driven by the nature of the data, which in turn depends on whether the source is point-like or extended. The prior encodes astrophysical expectations about lens galaxy mass distributions, either through a careful choice of model families, or through an explicit Bayesian prior applied to under-constrained free-form models. We can think about different lens modeling methods in terms of their choices of likelihoods and priors.

Keywords

Strong gravitational lensing Lens modeling Galaxy structure Statistical methods 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kochanek, C.S.: In: Meylan, G., Jetzer, P., North, P. (eds.) Saas-Fee Advanced Course 33: Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro, pp. 91–268 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Courbin F., Saha P., Schechter P.L.: In: Courbin, F., Minniti, D. (eds.) Gravitational Lensing: An Astrophysical Tool, Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 608, pp. 1–54. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Courbin, F.: Preprint. arXiv:astro-ph/0304497 (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schechter, P.L.: In: Mellier, Y., Meylan, G. (eds.) Gravitational Lensing Impact on Cosmology, IAU Symposium, vol. 225, pp. 281–296 (2005). doi: 10.1017/S1743921305002085
  5. 5.
    Koopmans, L.V.E.: In: Davies, J., Disney, M. (eds.) IAU Symposium, vol. 244, pp. 196–205 (2008). doi: 10.1017/S1743921307013993
  6. 6.
    Bartelmann M.: Applications of Gravitational Lensing in Cosmology, pp. 213–256. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kneib, J.: In: Plionis, M., López-Cruz, O., Hughes, D. (eds.) A Pan-Chromatic View of Clusters of Galaxies and the Large-Scale Structure, Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 740, pp. 213–253. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schneider P., Ehlers J., Falco E.E.: Gravitational Lenses. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1992)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Petters A.O., Levine H., Wambsganss J.: Singularity Theory and Gravitational Lensing. Birkhäuser, Boston (2001)MATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schramm T.: Astron. Astrophys. 231, 19 (1990)MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Keeton, C.R.: Preprint. arXiv:astro-ph/0102341 (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    van de Ven G., Mandelbaum R., Keeton C.R.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 607 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15167.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gelman A.B., Carlin J.S., Stern H.S., Rubin D.B.: Bayesian Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton (1995)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Press W.H., Teukolsky S.A., Vetterling W.T., Flannery B.P.: Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1992)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Skilling, J.: In: Fischer, R., Preuss, R., Toussaint, U.V. (eds.) American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 735, pp. 395–405 (2004). doi: 10.1063/1.1835238
  16. 16.
    Mukherjee P., Parkinson D., Liddle A.R.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 638, L51 (2006). doi: 10.1086/501068 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rhie, S.H.: Preprint. arXiv:astro-ph/0103463 (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khavinson D., Neumann G.: Proc AMS 134, 1077 (2006)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    An J.H., Evans N.W.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 317 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10303.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fassnacht, C.D., Keeton, C.R., Khavinson, D.: Preprint. arXiv:0708.2684 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khavinson,D., Lundberg, E.: Preprint. arXiv:0908.3310 (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bergweiler, W., Eremenko, A.: Preprint. arXiv:0908.4595 (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blandford R.D., Kochanek C.S.: Astrophys. J. 321, 658 (1987). doi: 10.1086/165660 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kochanek C.S., Blandford R.D.: Astrophys. J. 321, 676 (1987). doi: 10.1086/165661 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Keeton, C.R.: Preprint. arXiv:astro-ph/0102340 (2001)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shewchuk, J.R.: In: Lin, M.C., Manocha, D. (eds.) Applied Computational Geometry: Towards Geometric Engineering, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1148, pp. 203–222. From the First ACM Workshop on Applied Computational Geometry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1996)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shewchuk J.R.: Comput. Geometry 22(1–3), 21 (2002). doi: 10.1016/S0925-7721(01)00047-5 MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kochanek C.S.: Astrophys. J. 373, 354 (1991). doi: 10.1086/170057 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saha P., Williams L.L.R.: Astron. J. 125, 2769 (2003). doi: 10.1086/375204 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Linder E.V.: Phys. Rev. D 70(4), 043534 (2004). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.70.043534 CrossRefMathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Coe D., Moustakas L.A.: Astrophys. J. 706, 45 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/706/1/45 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    LSST Science Collaborations: LSST Science Book, Version 2.0. LSST Corporation, Tucson (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Keeton C.R., Gaudi B.S., Petters A.O.: Astrophys. J. 598, 138 (2003). doi: 10.1086/378934 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oguri M.: Astrophys. J. 660, 1 (2007). doi: 10.1086/513093 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Keeton C.R., Gaudi B.S., Petters A.O.: Astrophys. J. 635, 35 (2005). doi: 10.1086/497324 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Congdon A.B., Keeton C.R., Nordgren C.E.: Astrophys. J. 709, 552 (2010)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Williams L.L.R., Foley P., Farnsworth D., Belter J.: Astrophys. J. 685, 725 (2008). doi: 10.1086/591227 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Blandford, R., Surpi, G., Kundić, T.: In: Brainerd, T.G., Kochanek, C.S. (eds.) Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress and Future Goals, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 237, pp. 65–74 (2001)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Suyu S.H., Blandford R.D.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 366, 39 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09854.x ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kochanek C.S., Keeton C.R., McLeod B.A.: Astrophys. J. 547, 50 (2001). doi: 10.1086/318350 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Koopmans L.V.E., Treu T., Fassnacht C.D., Blandford R.D., Surpi G.: Astrophys. J. 599, 70 (2003). doi: 10.1086/379226 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoo J., Kochanek C.S., Falco E.E., McLeod B.A.: Astrophys. J. 626, 51 (2005). doi: 10.1086/429959 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yoo J., Kochanek C.S., Falco E.E., McLeod B.A.: Astrophys. J. 642, 22 (2006). doi: 10.1086/500968 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kochanek C.S., Narayan R.: Astrophys. J. 401, 461 (1992). doi: 10.1086/172078 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ellithorpe J.D., Kochanek C.S., Hewitt J.N.: Astrophys. J. 464, 556 (1996). doi: 10.1086/177346 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wucknitz O.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1 (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07513.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wallington S., Kochanek C.S., Koo D.C.: Astrophys. J. 441, 58 (1995). doi: 10.1086/175335 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wallington S., Narayan R., Kochanek C.S.: Astrophys. J. 426, 60 (1994). doi: 10.1086/174039 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wallington S., Kochanek C.S., Narayan R.: Astrophys. J. 465, 64 (1996). doi: 10.1086/177401 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wayth R.B., Webster R.L.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 1187 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10922.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Warren S.J., Dye S.: Astrophys. J. 590, 673 (2003). doi: 10.1086/375132 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dye S., Warren S.J.: Astrophys. J. 623, 31 (2005). doi: 10.1086/428340 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Treu T., Koopmans L.V.E.: Astrophys. J. 611, 739 (2004). doi: 10.1086/422245 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Suyu S.H., Marshall P.J., Hobson M.P., Blandford R.D.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 983 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10733.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Koopmans L.V.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 363, 1136 (2005). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09523.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vegetti S., Koopmans L.V.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 392, 945 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14005.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Keeton C.R., Kochanek C.S.: Astrophys. J. 487, 42 (1997). doi: 10.1086/304583 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Saha P.: Astron. J. 120, 1654 (2000). doi: 10.1086/301581 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kochanek C.S.: Astrophys. J. 578, 25 (2002). doi: 10.1086/342476 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cohn J.D., Kochanek C.S., McLeod B.A., Keeton C.R.: Astrophys. J. 554, 1216 (2001). doi: 10.1086/321412 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kochanek C.S., Morgan N.D., Falco E.E., McLeod B.A., Winn J.N., Dembicky J., Ketzeback B.: Astrophys. J. 640, 47 (2006). doi: 10.1086/499766 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Koopmans L.V.E., Bolton A., Treu T., Czoske O., Auger M.W., Barnabè M., Vegetti S., Gavazzi R., Moustakas L.A., Burles S.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 703, L51 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/703/1/L51 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fadely R., Keeton C.R., Nakajima R., Bernstein G.M.: Astrophys. J. 711, 246 (2010)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Keeton C.R., Kochanek C.S., Seljak U.: Astrophys. J. 482, 604 (1997). doi: 10.1086/304172 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mao S., Schneider P.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 587 (1998). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01319.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Metcalf R.B., Madau P.: Astrophys. J. 563, 9 (2001). doi: 10.1086/323695 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chiba M.: Astrophys. J. 565, 17 (2002). doi: 10.1086/324493 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dalal N., Kochanek C.S.: Astrophys. J. 572, 25 (2002). doi: 10.1086/340303 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Momcheva I., Williams K., Keeton C., Zabludoff A.: Astrophys. J. 641, 169 (2006). doi: 10.1086/500382 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fassnacht C.D., Gal R.R., Lubin L.M., McKean J.P., Squires G.K., Readhead A.C.S.: Astrophys. J. 642, 30 (2006). doi: 10.1086/500927 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Falco E.E., Gorenstein M.V., Shapiro I.I.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 289, L1 (1985). doi: 10.1086/184422 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gorenstein M.V., Shapiro I.I., Falco E.E.: Astrophys. J. 327, 693 (1988). doi: 10.1086/166226 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kochanek C.S.: Astrophys. J. 382, 58 (1991). doi: 10.1086/170693 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Keeton C.R., Zabludoff A.I.: Astrophys. J. 612, 660 (2004). doi: 10.1086/422745 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Koopmans L.V.E., Treu T., Bolton A.S., Burles S., Moustakas L.A.: Astrophys. J. 649, 599 (2006). doi: 10.1086/505696 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Evans N.W., Witt H.J.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 1260 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04826.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Evans N.W., Witt H.J.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 1351 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2966.2003.07057.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kawano Y., Oguri M., Matsubara T., Ikeuchi S.: Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 56, 253 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Congdon A.B., Keeton C.R.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 364, 1459 (2005). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09699.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Trotter C.S., Winn J.N., Hewitt J.N.: Astrophys. J. 535, 671 (2000). doi: 10.1086/308861 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ros E., Guirado J.C., Marcaide J.M., Pérez-Torres M.A., Falco E.E., Muñoz J.A., Alberdi A., Lara L.: Astron. Astrophys. 362, 845 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Saha P., Williams L.L.R.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 292, 148 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Williams L.L.R., Saha P.: Astron. J. 119, 439 (2000). doi: 10.1086/301234 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Saha P., Williams L.L.R.: Astron. J. 127, 2604 (2004). doi: 10.1086/383544 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Williams L.L.R., Saha P.: Astron. J. 128, 2631 (2004). doi: 10.1086/426007 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ferreras I., Saha P., Williams L.L.R.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 623, L5 (2005). doi: 10.1086/429995 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Saha P., Coles J., Macciò A.V., Williams L.L.R.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 650, L17 (2006). doi: 10.1086/507583 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Saha P., Courbin F., Sluse D., Dye S., Meylan G.: Astron. Astrophys. 450, 461 (2006). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20052929 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Saha P., Williams L.L.R., Ferreras I.: Astrophys. J. 663, 29 (2007). doi: 10.1086/518083 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Read J.I., Saha P., Macciò A.V.: Astrophys. J. 667, 645 (2007). doi: 10.1086/520714 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ferreras I., Saha P., Burles S.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 383, 857 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12606.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Suyu S.H., Marshall P.J., Blandford R.D., Fassnacht C.D., Koopmans L.V.E., McKean J.P., Treu T.: Astrophys. J. 691, 277 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/691/1/277 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Suyu S.H., Marshall P.J., Auger M.W., Hilbert S., Blandford R.D., Koopmans L.V.E., Fassnacht C.D., Treu T.: Astrophys. J. 711, 201 (2010)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Vegetti S., Koopmans L.V.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 400, 1583 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15559.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vegetti, S., Koopmans, L.V.E., Bolton, A., Treu, T., Gavazzi, R.: Preprint. arXiv:0910.0760 (2009)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Congdon A.B., Keeton C.R., Nordgren C.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 389, 398 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13604.x CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyRutgers, The State University of New JerseyPiscatawayUSA

Personalised recommendations