Surveys in Geophysics

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 441–461 | Cite as

Feasibility of Monitoring the Hontomín (Burgos, Spain) CO2 Storage Site Using a Deep EM Source

  • Eloi Vilamajó
  • Pilar Queralt
  • Juanjo Ledo
  • Alex Marcuello


Geophysical methods have been used experimentally during the last decade, a period of strong development, being adopted as complementary techniques for characterizing and monitoring hydrocarbon and gas reservoirs. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method to monitor the storage of CO2 at the Research Laboratory on Geological Storage of CO2 at Hontomín (Burgos, Spain). Two aspects of the CSEM monitoring were examined considering the geoelectrical structure at the site, the technological constraints and the noise conditions of the Hontomín area. Borehole-to-surface simulations were performed to evaluate the detectability of the resistivity changes in the reservoir and the capacity to determine the location of the CO2 plume. The synthetic time-lapse study explores the possibilities of CSEM monitoring with a deep electric source. Three depths of the source are analyzed: above the plume, inside the plume, and beneath the stored CO2. In terms of the Hontomín storage site, the study confirmed that a deep electric source located beneath the injection depth can provide valuable information on the behavior of the stored CO2.


CO2 storage CSEM method Geophysical monitoring Deep electromagnetic source Electromagnetic monitoring 



Controlled source electromagnetic


Technological demonstration plant




Time-lapse signal



This work was carried out as part of the Spanish MCI PIERCO2 (CGL2009-07604). Eloi Vilamajó currently supported by a grant FPU of the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. The authors would like to thank the Spanish Foundation CIUDEN – Ciudad de la Energía. The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments that helped to improve the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eloi Vilamajó
    • 1
  • Pilar Queralt
    • 1
  • Juanjo Ledo
    • 1
  • Alex Marcuello
    • 1
  1. 1.GEOMODELS Research Institute, Departament de Geodinàmica i Geofísica, Facultat de GeologiaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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