, Volume 145, Issue 1, pp 37–49 | Cite as

Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand

  • Solene Janique
  • Wantana Sriratanasak
  • Kulchana Ketsuwan
  • Jirapong Jairin
  • Ekgachai Jeratthitikul
Original Paper


The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.


DNA barcoding Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography Orseolia oryzae Repeated motif Thailand 



This research project was supported by Mahidol University under the Talent Management Program and Faculty of Science, Mahidol University to EJ. We also would like to give our regards to Dr. Sangvorn Kitthawee and Dr. Jenjit Khudamrongsawat for comments as well as Dr. James Rudge and Stephan Schreier for comments and grammar checking.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.

Ethics statement

Orseolia oryzae is a serious insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa. It is not endangered species or protected by law. Therefore, no permits are required to study this insect.

Supplementary material

10709_2016_9944_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (31 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 30 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal Systematics and Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Bureau of Rice Research and DevelopmentRice DepartmentBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Phrae Rice Research CenterMueangThailand
  4. 4.Ubon Ratchathani Rice Research CenterUbon RatchathaniThailand

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