Reconstruction of two colonisation pathways of Mantis religiosa (Mantodea) in Germany using four mitochondrial markers
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Past and recent climatic changes induced shifts in species ranges. Mantis religiosa has also expanded its range across Germany within the past decades. To determine the ancestry of German M. religiosa we sequenced four mitochondrial genes (COI, COII, Cyt b, ND4) of European M. religiosa populations. We found an east, central and west European lineage of M. religiosa. These distinct lineages are consistent with genetic isolation by distance during glacial periods, and the re-colonization of northern parts of Europe by species from different refugia. Within Germany, we found haplotypes clustering to the central and west European lineage suggesting that M. religiosa immigrated from two directions into Germany. Mismatch distributions, and negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs values indicate a current range expansion of the central and west European lineage. We hypothesise that ongoing global warming which increases the availability of thermally favourable areas in Germany for M. religiosa adds to its current range expansion. In conclusion, M. religiosa colonized Germany via two directions: west German populations descended from French populations and east German populations from Czech populations.
KeywordsCOI COII Cyt b ND4 Climate change Range margin
We are extremely grateful to Roberto Battiston, Manfred Berg, Enrico Busato, Claudine Decourchelle, Denis Loupy, Reinhard Ehrmann, Sönke Hardersen, Manfred Keller, Ingmar Landeck, Nora Lieskonig and Harald Krenn, Thomas Michaelis, Luca Picciau, Gerhard Pohl, Susanne Randolf, Ralf Rasch, Kai Schütte, and Christopher Tuchscherer for collecting and/or providing samples of M. religiosa. We also thank Christiane Groß for DNA preparation and Jes Johannesen for precious advice in data evaluation. We are especially grateful to Petr Janšta for providing genetic data from his phylogeographic database on M. religiosa. Additionally we thank Rebecca Nagel for linguistic improvement and the members of our working group, as well as the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. This research was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt. This paper is part of the PhD thesis of Catherine Anne Linn.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any experiments with animals performed by any of the authors. For collecting M. religiosa tissue samples we got the permissions from the nature conservation authorities.
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