Advertisement

GeoJournal

pp 1–22 | Cite as

Cross-border shopping: Just like domestic shopping? A comparative study

  • Susanne Bygvrå
Article
  • 68 Downloads

Abstract

This paper analyses to what extent people from one country visit shopping destinations in a neighbouring country. The analyses are based on data collected by fieldwork in 2014/2015 in the Danish–German, the Belgium–Dutch–German and the Austrian–Hungarian–Slovak border regions. These regions represent different historical conditions and have experienced different time spans with ‘open borders’. The comparisons are based on the registration of cars (N = 17,721) at car parks at the selected venues. To assess the nationality distribution of the cars, the population distribution on each side of the borders and the destination’s location within the urban pattern were included. The analyses were conducted with three levels of distance decay. When comparing the observed shares of cars from the neighbouring country with the theoretical shares, the phenomenon ‘as if no border’ was found for some shopping venues in all the border regions included. However, in most regions there were also examples of venues having a significantly higher or lower share of foreign visitors than expected.

Keywords

Cross-border shopping Comparative study Europe Shopping destinations 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I want to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of the manuscript and for their constructive and valuable comments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. Aspeslagh, R., & Dekker, H. (1998). An equivocal relationship: Germany and the Netherlands. In C. Lankowski (Ed.), Break out, break down or break. Germany and the European Union after Amsterdam (pp. 11–20). AICGS Report No. 8, American Institute for Contemporary German Studies.Google Scholar
  2. Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R., & Griffin, M. (1994). Work and/or fun: Measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 644–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baláž, V., & Williams, A. M. (2005). International tourism as bricolage: An analysis of Central Europe on the brink of European Union Membership. International Journal of Tourism Research, 7, 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bode, E., Krieger-Boden, C., & Lammers, K. (1994). Cross-border activities, taxation and the European single market. Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft an der Universität Kiel.Google Scholar
  5. Borchert, J. G. (1988). Recent developments in retailing in the Netherlands. Tijdschrift voor Econ. en Soc. Geografie, 79(3), 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breuer, H. W., & Pospischill, S. (1994). Wirtschaftsräumliche Untersuchungen zum Umfang, Wertigkeit und Kundenreichsweite des Einzelhandels in den belgischen Ostkantonen sowie mögliche arbeitsmarketrelevante Entwicklungstendenzen. Aachen: Geographisches Institut der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule.Google Scholar
  7. Brinkhoff, T. City Population. http://www.citypopulation.de. Accessed January 05, 2015.
  8. Bygvrå, S. (1998). The road to the single European market as seen through the Danish retail trade: Cross-border shopping between Denmark and Germany. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 8(2), 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bygvrå, S. (2000). Retail trade at European Borders. The European Retail Digest, 27, 41–43.Google Scholar
  10. Bygvrå, S. (2002). Grænsehandel foråret 2001 - efter Øresundsbro og Schengen. Notat nr. 77. Aabenraa: Institut for grænseregionsforskning.Google Scholar
  11. Bygvrå, S. (2007). Personal interaction in European border regions. Aabenraa: Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark.Google Scholar
  12. Bygvrå, S. (2009). Distance and cross-border shopping for alcohol—Evidence from Danes’ cross-border shopping 1986–2003. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drug, 26(2), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalapina, M., & Simperl, K. E. (2004). Preisvergleich Sopron, Brno, Bratislava and Wien. AK-Erhebung – Bericht: Arbeitskammer Wien.Google Scholar
  14. Dawson, J. A. (1988). Futures for the high street. The Geographical Journal, 154(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dmitrovic, T., & Vida, I. (2007). An examination of cross-border shopping behaviour in South-East Europe. European Journal of Marketing, 41(3/4), 382–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eurostat. Comparative price levels of consumer goods and servicesStatistics explained. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Comparative_price_levels_of_consumer_goods_and_services. Accessed February 01, 2016.
  17. Eurostat. Local administrative units. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/nuts/local-administrative-units. Accessed February 2015.
  18. Follo, G. (2005). Borderline-land: Norwegian Cross Border Shopping between Purchase and Trip. Paper 3/05, Centre for Rural Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.Google Scholar
  19. Gorter, C., Nijkamp, P., & Klamer, P. (2003). The attraction force of out-of-town shopping malls: A case study on run-fun shopping in the Netherlands. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 94(2), 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gurova, O., & Ratilainen, S. (2016). From shuttle trade to middle-class consumers: Russian tourist in Finnish newspaper discourse between the years 1990 and 2014. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(sup1), 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hansen, N. (1977). The economic development of border regions. Growth and Change, 8(4), 2–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hardi, T. (2010). Cities, regions and transborder mobility along and across the border. Pécs: Centre for Regional Studies of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  23. Hardi, T., & Kukorelli, I. S. (2014). Complex gravity zones and the extension of labour catchment areas in North Transdanubia. Dela - Oddelek za geografijo Filozofske Fakultete v Ljubljani, 42, 95–114.Google Scholar
  24. Jackson, E. L. (1991). Shopping and leisure: Implications of West Edmonton Mall for leisure and for leisure research. The Canadian Geographer, 35(3), 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jansen, A. C. M. (1989). ‘Funshopping’ as a geographical notion, or: the attraction of the inner city of Amsterdam as a shopping area. Tijdschrift voor Econ. en Soc. Geografie, 80(3), 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kovács, A. (2013). On borders, border regions and cross-border retail-trading. Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, series D, XX(28), 29–42.Google Scholar
  27. Lavik, R., & Nordlund, S. (2009). Norway at the border of EU—Cross-border shopping and its implications. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drug, 26(2), 205–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leimgruber, W. (1988). Border trade: The boundary as an inventive and an obstacle to shopping trips. Nordia, 22(1), 53–60.Google Scholar
  29. Luki, T., Bubalo-Živković, M., Derčan, B., & Jovanović, G. (2014). Population growth in the border villages of Srem, Serbia. Acta Geographica Slovenica, 54(1), 51–65.Google Scholar
  30. Michalkó, G., Rátz, T., Hinek, M., & Tömöri, M. (2014). Shopping tourism in Hungary during the period of the economic crisis. Tourism Economics, 20(6), 1319–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Michalkó, G., & Timothy, D. J. (2001). Cross-border shopping in Hungary: Causes and effects. Visions in Leisure and Business, 20(1), 4–22.Google Scholar
  32. Monheim, R. (1998). Methodological aspects of surveying the volume, structure, activities and perceptions of city centre visitors. GeoJournal, 45, 273–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pak, M. (1979). Die Versorgungsfunktion als Element des grenzüberschreitenden Fremdenverkehrs. In Tourism and borders. Proceedings of the meeting of the IGU group: Geography of tourism and Recreation Ljubljana/Trieste 15.-19.9.1978 (pp. 31–36). Institut für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeographie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt/Main.Google Scholar
  34. Pieters, M., de Jong, G., & van der Hoorn, T. (2012). Cross-border car traffic in Dutch mobility models. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 12(2), 167–177.Google Scholar
  35. Reilly, W. J. (1931). The law of retail gravitation. New York, G.P.: Putnam.Google Scholar
  36. Reynolds, F. D., & Darden, W. R. (1972). Intermarket patronage: A psychographic study of consumer outshoppers. Journal of Marketing, 36(4), 50–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rhomberg, W., Bornett, W., Gavac, K., Gittenberger, E., Kamptner, I., Mandl, I., et al. (2004). Betriebliche Strategien von KMU unter veränderten Bedingungen in Folge der EU-Erweiterung und Monitoring der regionalen, sektorspezifischen Marktentwicklung (STRTEEC) Teil 2. KMU Forschung Austria, Wien.Google Scholar
  38. Rushton, G. (1969). Analysis of spatial behavior by revealed space preference. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 59(2), 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Scarpi, D. (2006). Fashion stores between fun and usefulness. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 10(1), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schulz, H. (2002). Twin Towns of the Border as Laboratories of European Integration. Frankfurtz: Frankfurter Institut für Transformationsstudien.Google Scholar
  41. Sikos, T. T. (2009). Key to the success of the outlet shopping centers located in optimal site. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 58(3), 181–200.Google Scholar
  42. Sikos, T. T., & Kovács, A. (2011). Retail competitiveness in a middle sized border town (Komárno, Slovakia). Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 60(3), 285–306.Google Scholar
  43. Spierings, B., & van der Velde, M. (2008). Shopping, borders and unfamiliarity: Consumer mobility in Europe. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 99(4), 497–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Spierings, B., & van der Velde, M. (2013). Cross-border differences and unfamiliarity: Shopping mobility in the Dutch-German Rhine-Waal Euroregion. European Planning Studies, 21(1), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stadtregion Arnhem-Nijmegen. (2009). Euregionale Kaufstromanalyse 2009, Abschlussbericht. http://www.destadsregio.nl/publicaties/publicaties-werken/euregionaal-koopstromenonderzoek-2009/euregionale-kaufstromanalyse-2009. Accessed February 16, 2016.
  46. Štastný, Z. (2000). Border-regional Relations between Slovakia and the Neighbouring Countries. In Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (pp. 411–424).Google Scholar
  47. Stryjakiewicz, T., & Kaczmarek, K. (1997). Transborder co-operation and development in the conditions of great socio-economic disparities: the case of the Polish-German border region. In Paper presented at the EURRN conference on “Regional Frontiers”, Frankfurt (Oder) 20.-23.9.1997.Google Scholar
  48. Sundström, M., Lundberg, C., & Giannakis, S. (2011). Tourist shopping motivation: go with the flow or follow the plan. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 3(2), 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Susetyo, C. (2016). Spatial service of petrol filling stations in Surabaya City. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 227, 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Szytniewski, B. B., Spierings, B., & van der Velde, M. (2017). Socio-cultural proximity, daily life and shopping tourism in the Dutch–German border region. Tourism Geographies, 19(1), 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Timothy, D. J. (2001). Tourism and political boundaries. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. van der Velde, M. (2000). Borders and shopping: business as usual or ever-changing moods? In Paper presented at the 40th European Congress of the Regional Science Association, Barcelona 29.8-1.9.2000.Google Scholar
  53. van Leeuwen, E. S., & Rietveld, P. (2011). Spatial consumer behaviour in small and medium-sized towns. Regional Studies, 45(8), 1107–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. van Raaij, F., & Floor, K. (1983). Retailing developments in the Netherlands. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, 13(5/6), 128–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williams, A. M., & Baláž, V. (2002). Trans-border population mobility at a European cross-roads: Slovakia in the shadow of EU accession. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(4), 647–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AabenraaDenmark

Personalised recommendations