pp 1–15 | Cite as

Identifying regional poverty types in Slovakia

  • Anton Michálek
  • Michala Sládeková Madajová


Even today the poverty is an important negative social phenomenon with evident spatial dimension. Areas with high poverty concentration constitute poverty regions with plenty of common but also different or specific characteristics. Research into the specific poverty features in regions lags behind that of the common characteristics and character of poverty. The aim is to show one of ways to carry out typification of poverty regions (on example of Slovakia). A universal conceptual and methodological frame applicable to any country is presented. Regional poverty types were sorted out by application of the hierarchical agglomerative methods of cluster analysis (Ward’s method) with nine indicators capturing the generally applicable dimensions, which determine poverty and profile of poverty regions. Results confirmed the presumption that the different economic, social, demographic, cultural and other different conditions and population structure in regions may determine the character of poverty. Obtained knowledge points not only to the particular population groups, which require attention but also to the regional poverty types that should be identified for the efficient fight against poverty in these regions.


Cluster analysis Multiple deprivations Regional poverty type Children’s poverty Roma poverty Old age poverty Work poverty Slovakia 



This paper has been produced under the scientific project No. 2/0009/18 funded by the VEGA Grant Agency.


  1. ACSB—American Community Survey Briefs. (2011). Areas with concentrated poverty: 2006–2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  2. Boarini, R., Johansson, A., & D’ercole, M, M. (2006). Alternative measures of well-being. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 33. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  3. Boldrin, M., & Canova, F. (2001). Inequalities and convergence in Europe’s regions. Reconsidering European regional policies. Economic Policy, 32(6), 205–253.Google Scholar
  4. Bradbury, B., Jenkins, S. P., & Micklewright, J. (2001). The dynamics of child poverty in industrialised countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic. (2013). Nezamestnanosť: štvrťročné štatistiky 2011 [Unemployment - quarterly statistics 2011]. Retrieved from Accessed 10-01-2014.
  6. Džambazovič, R., Horňák, M., Hrabovská, A., Michálek, A., Rochovská, A., & Rusnáková, J. (2008). Analytická štúdia: vytvorenie národných indikátorov v oblasti chudoby a sociálneho vylúčenia a návrh spôsobu zabezpečenia ich pravidelného monitorovania [Analytical study: Creating national indicators on poverty and social exclusion and proposing ways to ensure their regular monitoring] (p. 256). Bratislava: Euroformes.Google Scholar
  7. European Parliament. (2007). Regional disparities and cohesion. What strategies for the future. Directorate General for Internal Policies of the Union: Brussel.Google Scholar
  8. EUROSTAT. (2017). GDP per capita, consumption per capita and price level indices. Retrieved from,_consumption_per_capita_and_price_level_indices. Accessed November 22, 2017.
  9. Falťan, Ľ., & Pašiak, J. (2004). Regionálny rozvoj Slovenska. Východiská a súčasný stav [Regional development of Slovakia. Background and present state]. Bratislava: Sociologický ústav SAV.Google Scholar
  10. Farrigan, T., Hertz, T., & Parker, T. (2015). Rural poverty & well-being. USDA Economic Research Service. Retrieved from Accessed December 29, 2015.
  11. Fenton, A. (2013). Small-area measures of income poverty. Retrieved from Accessed March 22, 2015.
  12. Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Fortuijn, J. D., & Ostendorf, W. (2004). Gender and urban poverty: Single mothers in Amsterdam. GeoJournal, 61(3), 239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghelfi, L. M. (2001). Most persistently poor rural counties in the south remained poor in 1995. Rural America, 15(4), 36–49.Google Scholar
  15. Gibson, J., & Olivia, S. (2002). An illustration of the average exit time measure of poverty. In: Working paper in economics. Hamilton: Department of Economics. Retrieved from Accessed September 23, 2012.
  16. Hendl, J. (2009). Přehled statistických metod zpracování dat. [Summary of statistical methods of data processing]. 3. vyd., Praha: Portál, 695.Google Scholar
  17. INEKO. (2017). Odborníci diskutovali, ako znižovať zaostávanie regiónov [Experts discussed how to reduce the lagging regions]. Press release. Retrieved from: Accessed November 24, 2017.
  18. Ivančíková, L., & Vlačuha, R. (2010). Chudoba a sociálne vylúčenie v regiónoch Slovenska [Poverty and social exclusion in the regions of Slovakia]. In I. Pauhofová, O. Hudec, & T. Želinský (Eds.), Sociálny kapitál, ľudský kapitál a chudoba v regiónoch Slovenska [Social capital, human capital and poverty in the regions of Slovakia] (pp. 31–36). Ekonomická fakulta TUKE: Košice.Google Scholar
  19. Kenway, P., & Palmer, G. (2007). Poverty rates among ethnic groups in Great Britain. JRF—Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Retrieved from Accessed September 3, 2014.
  20. Larose, D. T. (2006). Data mining method and models. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Levernier, W., Partridge, M. D., & Rickman, D. S. (2000). The causes of regional variations in U.S. poverty: A cross-county analysis. Journal of Regional Science, 40(3), 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mckay, A. (2002). Defining and measuring inequality. London: Economist Resource Centre. Retrieved from Accessed October 22, 2012.
  23. Michálek, A., & Podolák, P. (2005). Spatial distribution of poverty and its features in Slovakia. European Spatial Rea-search and Policy, 12(2), 161–176.Google Scholar
  24. Michálek, A., & Veselovská, Z. (2016). Identifikácia okresov chudoby na Slovensku, ich vývoj a zmeny v rokoch 2001–2011 [Identification of poverty districts in Slovakia, their development and changes in the years 2001–2011]. In A. Michálek & P. Podolák (Eds.), Regióny chudoby na Slovensku [Regions of poverty in Slovakia] (pp. 31–47). Bratislava: Geografický ústav SAV.Google Scholar
  25. Mitchell, J., & Coles, C. H. (2011). Markets and rural poverty upgrading in value chains. London and Washington, DC: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  26. Mitlin, D., & Satterthwaite, D. (2013). Urban poverty in the global south: Scale and nature. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Molle, W. (2007). European cohesion policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Morduch, J. (2005). Poverty measures. In: UN (Ed.), Handbook on poverty statistics: concepts, methods and policy use. New York: UN Statistics Division. Retrieved from Accessed September 20, 2012.
  29. Noll, H. H. (2002). Towards a European system of social indicators: Theoretical framework and system architecture. Social Indicators Research, 58(1–3), 47–87.Google Scholar
  30. O’Hare, G., & Rivas, S. (2007). Changing poverty distribution in Bolivia: The role of rural-urban migration and urban services. GeoJournal, 68(4), 307–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Orayen, R. E., Gil, K., Pascual, P., & Rapún, M. (2005). Regional inequality in the European Union: Does industry mix matter? Regional Studies, 39(6), 679–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Orayen, R. E., Pascual, P., & Rapún, M. (2006). Regional polarization in the European Union. European Planning Studies, 14(4), 459–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pauhofová, I. (2012). Generovanie chudoby vo vidieckych regiónoch Slovenska v krízovom období [Generation of poverty in rural regions of Slovakia in the crisis period]. In I. Pauhofová & T. Želinský (Eds.), Nerovnost’ a chudoba v Európskej únii a na Slovensku [Inequality and poverty in the European Union and Slovakia] (pp. 49–56). Ekonomická fakulta TUKE: Košice.Google Scholar
  34. Polese, M. (2011). The wealth and poverty of regions: Why cities matter (p. 288). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Samson, Š. (2006). Ukazovatele hodnotiace úroveň regiónov [Indicators of the level of regions]. Retrieved from Accessed November 23, 2017.
  36. Stankovičová, I., & Vojtková, M. (2007). Viacrozmerné štatistické metódy s aplikáciami [Multivariate Statistical Methods with Applications] (p. 261). Bratislava: Iura Edition.Google Scholar
  37. The ESPON. (2014). At risk of poverty and social exclusion in European regions. The ESPON 2013 Programme. Luxembourg - Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Retrieved from Accessed November 23, 2004.
  38. The Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. (2011). EU SILC 2010: Indicators of poverty and social exclusion. Retrieved from Accessed November 28, 2013.
  39. The Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. (2012). RegDat. Retrieved from Accessed October 23, 2014.
  40. Wagle, U. (2008). Multidimensional poverty measurement. concepts and applications. New York: Springer Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wimberley, R. C., & Morris, L. V. (2002). The regionalization of poverty: Assistance for the Black Belt South? Southern Rural Sociology, 18(1), 294–306.Google Scholar
  42. Želinský, T. (2014). Chudoba a deprivácia na Slovensku [Poverty and deprivation in Slovakia] (p. 229). Košice: Equilibria.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geography of the Slovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations