, Volume 81, Issue 4, pp 641–656 | Cite as

Tourism marketing strategies performance: evidence from the development of peripheral areas in Cross River State, Nigeria



The study assessed how tourism marketing communication strategies has propelled the development of peripheral areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study were derived through participatory rural appraisal methods, questionnaire survey and direct field observation. The tourism “hotspots” of Cross River State were purposively selected such as Obudu Ranch Resort, Kwa Falls in Akamkpa, Ugep, Nkarasi Monoliths, Boki Rainforest communities and Calabar metropolis where Tinapa Business Resort is located. About 27,326 tourists’ population data covering between 2003 and 2014 was used. 55 staff of tourism administrators comprising of government tourism organisations and private tourism service providers, and 160 tourists who were found as at the time of this study were sampled to assess the marketing strategies. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential techniques. Results of the analysis showed that development in the peripheral areas either by government, private sector or community involvement was geared toward promoting the tourism attractions of the peripheral areas. This accounted for 35 % scores awarded by the local population during participatory assessment of the reasons for development in the area. Most aspects of development were observed in physical infrastructures which attracted 50 % during the assessment by the respondents. Also, the findings show that most tourists influenced by tourism marketing communication methods were from within Nigeria and foreign nations other than Africa. These include Europe, North America, Asia, Caribbean, Australia and South America. Furthermore, the activities commonly participated by significant population of tourists were sightseeing, visit for sports, leisure and recreation as well as visits to traditional rulers and cultural festivals. The result also showed that there is a significant difference in the effectiveness of tourism marketing communication methods based on the opinion of tourists and tourism administrators (P < 0.06, F = 7.976 = 4.52). Based on these findings, it is recommended that pursuance of all aspects of development in peripheral areas to improve destination and attraction sites thereby encouraging tourists from other parts of the world is essential. Also, public and private stakeholders should work together through recognizing destination marketing organisations to create promotional packages that possess the likelihood of presenting an image that can stimulate tourists’ interest to visit the study areas.


Attractions Tourism destination Tourism attributes Tourists Destination experience Development and peripheral areas 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental ScienceUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria

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