Advertisement

GeoJournal

, Volume 78, Issue 5, pp 897–913 | Cite as

Spatial and institutional characteristics of inland port development in China

  • Jason Monios
  • Yuhong Wang
Article

Abstract

This paper examines the spatial and institutional characteristics of the emerging trend of inland port development in China. The paper analyses a sample of 18 major inland ports in three geographical clusters, comparing observed issues with similar developments in Europe, the United States and Africa. It highlights the issues of customs clearance and intermodal transport, before an extended discussion on conflicting models of development based on the priorities of inland and port actors. The aim is first to provide a descriptive account of this development, and second to provide tentative explanations for these results by comparing the findings with similar developments in other countries. This task is aided by use of a conceptual framework drawn from the literature, in which port-driven and inland-driven inland ports are contrasted. Thus a supplementary aim of the paper is to develop the conceptual model of directional development in a new geographical context. Findings reveal the need to align development priorities of central and local governments, as well as clarifying the use of subsidies to a number of different inland ports which may potentially split economies of scale through increased competition for an overlapping hinterland. The paper demonstrates that, while in the past China’s seaports had less inland penetration compared to more mature systems, emerging trends suggest some similarities to patterns observed in more integrated networks such as Europe and North America.

Keywords

Inland port Logistics Freight Intermodal transport Rail Policy Planning Port authority Inland terminal Port competition 

References

  1. Adzigbey, Y., Kunaka, C., & Mitiku, T. N. (2007). Institutional arrangements for transport corridor management in Sub-Saharan Africa. SSATP working paper 86. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  2. Arvis, J.-F., Raballand, G., & Marteau, J.-F. (2007). The cost of being landlocked: logistics costs and supply chain reliability. Policy research working paper. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  3. Arvis, J.-F., Carruthers, R., Smith, G., & Willoughby, C. (2011). Connecting landlocked developing countries to markets: Trade corridors in the 21st century. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  4. Beresford, A. K. C., & Dubey, R. C. (1991). Handbook on the management and operation of dry ports. RDP/LDC/7. Geneva, Switzerland: UNCTAD.Google Scholar
  5. Beresford, A., Pettit, S., Xu, Q., & Williams, S. (2012). A study of dry port development in China. Maritime Economics & Logistics, 14(1), 73–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergqvist, R. (2008). Realizing logistics opportunities in a public–private collaborative setting: The story of Skaraborg. Transport Reviews, 28(2), 219–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergqvist, R., Falkemark, G., & Woxenius, J. (2010). Establishing intermodal terminals. World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research, 3(3), 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bichou, K., & Gray, R. (2004). A logistics and supply chain management approach to port performance measurement. Maritime Policy & Management, 31(1), 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. China Port and Harbours Association. (2010). Port price study. China Ports, (8), 45–46.Google Scholar
  10. China Port and Harbours Association. (2011a). Limitation of railway capacity and challenges in information exchange. Port Container Information (e-magazine), (848), 2. http://www.portcontainer.cn/DocumentMore.do?command=query&jspName=/documentsmore.jsp&moreId=3. Accessed December 15, 2011.
  11. China Port and Harbours Association. (2011b). Statistics of railway container transportation in China’s port industry. China Ports, (1), 32.Google Scholar
  12. Cullinane, K. P. B., & Wang, Y. (2012). The hierarchical configuration of the container port industry: An application of multiple linkage analysis. Maritime Policy & Management, 39(2), 169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Langen, P. W. (2008). Ensuring hinterland access: the role of port authorities. Discussion paper. JTRC OECD/ITF 2008-11.Google Scholar
  14. FHA. (2010). Freight facts and figures 2010. http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_analysis/nat_freight_stats/docs/10factsfigures/pdfs/fff2010_highres.pdf. Accessed February 22, 2011.
  15. Fleming, D. K., & Hayuth, Y. (1994). Spatial characteristics of transportation hubs: centrality and intermediacy. Journal of Transport Geography, 2(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frémont, A., & Soppé, M. (2007). Northern European range: Shipping line concentration and port hierarchy. In J. Wang, D. Olivier, T. Notteboom, & B. Slack (Eds.), Ports, cities and global supply chains (pp. 105–120). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  17. Fujin Port Office. (2010). Inland port development in Zhejiang province and its implications to Fujian, Government Research Report, 25 February 2010. http://www.fiet.gov.cn/html/20080425005523/20100225/475181.html. Accessed December 23, 2011.
  18. Garnwa, P., Beresford, A., & Pettit, S. (2009). Dry ports: A comparative study of the United Kingdom and Nigeria. In Transport and communications bulletin for Asia and the Pacific No. 78: Development of Dry Ports (pp. 40–56). New York: UNESCAP.Google Scholar
  19. General Administration of Customs. (2006). The 43rd announcement from general administration of customs, China. http://www.customs.gov.cn/Default.aspx?TabID=419&InfoID=30836&SettingModuleID=1188. Accessed December 23, 2011.
  20. General Administration of Customs. (2010). China customs statistics year book 2010. Beijing: China Customs Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, D. (2010). Transport geography and new European realities: a critique. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanaoka, S., & Regmi, M. B. (2011). Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: an environmental perspective. IATSS Research, 35(1), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayuth, Y. (2007). Globalisation and the port-urban interface: conflicts and opportunities. In J. Wang, D. Olivier, T. Notteboom, & B. Slack (Eds.), Ports, cities and global supply chains (pp. 141–156). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  24. He, C., & Wang, J. (2012). Regional and sectoral differences in the spatial restructuring of Chinese manufacturing industries during the post-WTO period. GeoJournal, 77(3), 361–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heaver, T., Meersman, H., Moglia, F., & Van de Voorde, E. (2000). Do mergers and alliances influence European shipping and port competition? Maritime Policy & Management, 27(4), 363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heaver, T., Meersman, H., & Van de Voorde, E. (2001). Co-operation and competition in international container transport: strategies for ports. Maritime Policy & Management, 28(3), 293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Konings, J. W. (1996). Integrated centres for the transhipment, storage, collection and distribution of goods. Transport Policy, 3(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kunaka, C. (2013). Dry ports and trade logistics in Africa. In R. Bergqvist, K. P. B. Cullinane, & G. Wilmsmeier (Eds.), Dry ports: A global perspective. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  29. Lee, S.-W., Song, D.-W., & Ducruet, C. (2008). A tale of Asia’s world ports: the spatial evolution in global hub port cities. Geoforum, 39(1), 372–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li, Y., & Wu, F. (2012). The transformation of regional governance in China: the rescaling of statehood. Progress in Planning, 78(1), 55–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Loo, B. P. Y., & Hook, B. (2002). Interplay of international, national and local factors in shaping container port development: a case study of Hong Kong. Transport Reviews, 22(2), 219–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lu, J., & Chang, Z. (2013). The construction of seamless supply chain network—development of “dry ports” in China. In R. Bergqvist, K. P. B. Cullinane, & G. Wilmsmeier (Eds.), Dry ports: A global perspective. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  33. McCalla, R. J. (1999). Global change, local pain: intermodal seaport terminals and their service areas. Journal of Transport Geography, 7(4), 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. MOR (Ministry of Railways). (2008). Mid-to-long-term railway network plan. Beijing: MOR.Google Scholar
  35. Monios, J. (2011). The role of inland terminal development in the hinterland access strategies of Spanish ports. Research in Transportation Economics, 33(1), 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Monios, J., & Lambert, B. (2013). Intermodal freight corridor development in the United States. In R. Bergqvist, K. P. B. Cullinane, & G. Wilmsmeier (Eds.), Dry ports: A global perspective. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  37. Monios, J., & Wilmsmeier, G. (2012). Giving a direction to port regionalisation. Transportation Research Part A: Policy & Practice, 46(10), 1551–1561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nathan Associates. (2011). Corridor diagnostic study of the northern and central corridors of East Africa. Action plan. (Vol 1: main report). Arusha, Tanzania: East African Community.Google Scholar
  39. Ng, A. K. Y., & Cetin, I. B. (2012). Locational characteristics of dry ports in developing economies: some lessons from Northern India. Regional Studies, 46(6), 757–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ng, K. Y. A., & Gujar, G. C. (2009a). The spatial characteristics of inland transport hubs: evidences from Southern India. Journal of Transport Geography, 17(5), 346–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ng, A. K. Y., & Gujar, G. C. (2009b). Government policies, efficiency and competitiveness: the case of dry ports in India. Transport Policy, 16(5), 232–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Notteboom, T. (2008). Bundling of freight flows and hinterland network developments. In R. Konings, H. Priemus, & P. Nijkamp (Eds.), The future of intermodal freight transport (pp. 66–88). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  43. Notteboom, T. E., & Rodrigue, J. (2005). Port regionalization: Towards a new phase in port development. Maritime Policy & Management, 32(3), 297–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Notteboom, T., & Rodrigue, J.-P. (2009a). Inland terminals within North American & European Supply Chains. In Transport and communications bulletin for Asia and the Pacific No. 78: development of dry ports (pp. 1–39). New York: UNESCAP.Google Scholar
  45. Notteboom, T., & Rodrigue, J.-P. (2009b). The future of containerization: perspectives from maritime and inland freight distribution. GeoJournal, 74(1), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Olivier, D., & Slack, B. (2006). Rethinking the port. Environment & Planning A, 38(8), 1409–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Parola, F., & Sciomachen, A. (2009). Modal split evaluation of a maritime container terminal. Maritime Economics & Logistics, 11(1), 77–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pittman, R. (2004). Chinese railway reform and competition: lessons from the experience in other countries. Journal of Transport Economics & Policy, 38(2), 309–332.Google Scholar
  49. Pittman, R. (2011). Risk-averse restructuring of freight railways in China. Utilities Policy, 19(3), 152–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rimmer, P. J., & Comtois, C. (2009). China’s container-related dynamics, 1990–2005. GeoJournal, 74(1), 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Robinson, R. (2002). Ports as elements in value-driven chain systems: the new paradigm. Maritime Policy & Management, 29(3), 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rodrigue, J. P., Debrie, J., Fremont, A., & Gouvernal, E. (2010). Functions and actors of inland ports: European and North American dynamics. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(4), 519–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rodrigue, J.-P., & Notteboom, T. (2009). The terminalisation of supply chains: reassessing the role of terminals in port/hinterland logistical relationships. Maritime Policy & Management, 36(2), 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rodrigue, J.-P., & Notteboom, T. (2010). Comparative North American and European gateway logistics: The regionalism of freight distribution. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(4), 497–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rodrigue, J.-P., & Notteboom, T. (2011). Looking inside the box: Evidence from the containerization of commodities and the cold chain. Paper presented at the European conference on shipping and ports, Chios Greece, June 2011.Google Scholar
  56. Rong, Z., & Bouf, D. (2005). How can competition be introduced into Chinese railways? Transport Policy, 12(4), 345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Roso, V., Woxenius, J., & Lumsden, K. (2009). The dry port concept: connecting container seaports with the hinterland. Journal of Transport Geography, 17(5), 338–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shi, L.-P. (2009). Analysis on the Strategies of Tianjin’s Waterless Port Construction. Logistics Sci-Tech, 32(10), 19–21.Google Scholar
  59. Slack, B. (2007). The terminalisation of seaports. In J. Wang, D. Olivier, T. Notteboom, & B. Slack (Eds.), Ports, cities and global supply chains (pp. 41–50). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  60. Slack, B., & Wang, J. J. (2002). The challenge of peripheral ports: an Asian perspective. GeoJournal, 56(2), 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Theofanis, S., & Boile, M. (2009). Empty marine container logistics: facts, issues and management strategies. GeoJournal, 74(1), 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. van Klink, H. A., & van den Berg, G. C. (1998). Gateways and Intermodalism. Journal of Transport Geography, 6(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Veenstra, A., Zuidwijk, R., & van Asperen, E. (2012). The extended gate concept for container terminals: Expanding the notion of dry ports. Maritime Economics & Logistics, 14(1), 14–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang, J. J., Rong, C., Xu, J., & Or, S. W. O. (2012). The funding of hierarchical railway development in China. Research in Transportation Economics, 35(1), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wilmsmeier, G., Monios, J., & Lambert, B. (2011). The directional development of intermodal freight corridors in relation to inland terminals. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1379–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. World Bank. (2009). Tracks from the past, transport for the future: China’s Railway Industry 1990–2008 and its future plans and possibilities. Beijing: Transport Coordinator, China Country Office.Google Scholar
  67. Wu, J. H., & Nash, C. (2000). Railway reform in China. Transport Reviews, 29(1), 25–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Xie, R., Chen, H., & Nash, C. (2002). Migration of railway freight transport from command economy to market economy: the case of China. Transport Reviews, 22(2), 159–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Crown Copyright  2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Edinburgh Napier UniversityEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations