, Volume 63, Issue 1–4, pp 49–90 | Cite as

The glacial history of landscape in the Batura Muztagh, NW Karakoram

  • S. Meiners


The most recent glacial history of the Bar Valley on the Batura south side of the great Karakorum main ridge shows a marked retreat of the Kukuar and Baltar glaciers since 1915 by 8 km. This tendency is continuing. A great lateral moraine (GLM), which shows the latest, historical maximum postglacial stage, is accompanied by a higher level, which reflects a neoglacial glacier level whose ice margins no longer exist. An earth-pyramid moraine rising high above the glacier, as also occurs on the northern declivities of the Batura, does not mark a specific level, but bears witness to a valley-filling glacier, for which further indicators can be found along the valley flank. In the gorge-like narrow trough valley, the flanks of which are covered by steep debris cones originating from the postglacial, numerous former glacial characteristics contrast with the current glaciation of the far retreated Kukuar and Baltar glaciers. Moraine material found at the valley outlet at Chalt and also on the Talmutz pass demonstrates complete ice filling of the Bar valley, also supported by the Daintar glacier. From a glacial geomorphological perspectives, this confirms a late to high glacial connection of the Bar glacier to a Hunza glacier, as postulated by Kuhle (2005).

Key words

Batura Bar Valley glacial history Karakorum late glacial lateral moraine neoglacial period 


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© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and High Mountain GeomorphologyUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany

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