Advertisement

GeoInformatica

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 1–26 | Cite as

Interactive cartographic route descriptions

  • Padraig Corcoran
  • Peter Mooney
  • Michela Bertolotto
Article

Abstract

Providing an adequate route description requires in-depth spatial knowledge of the route in question. In this article we demonstrate that despite having travelled a route recently and having much experience of the area in question, an individual may lack such a degree of knowledge. Previous research and experience informs us that a map is an effective tool for bridging gaps in one’s spatial knowledge. In this article we propose an approach, known as an Interactive Route Description, for defining and interpreting route descriptions interactively with a map. This approach is based on the concept of annotating the map in question and allows the aforementioned gap in one’s spatial knowledge to be bridged. An additional benefit of defining route descriptions in this way is that it facilitates automatic parsing and in turn offers many potential applications. One such application, illustrated in this paper, is the automatic transformation to other representations of the description such as turn-by-turn instructions.

Keywords

Route description Interactive cartography 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Research presented in this paper was primarily funded by the Irish Research Council (IRC) EMPOWER program. It was also in part funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) STRIVE programme (Grant 2008-FS-DM-14-S4) and a Strategic Research Cluster Grant (07/SRC/I1168) from Science Foundation Ireland under the National Development Plan.

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawala M, Stolte C (2001) Rendering effective route maps: improving usability through generalization. In: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, SIGGRAPH ’01. ACM, New York, pp 241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen G (2000) Principles and practices for communicating route knowledge. Appl Cogn Psychol 14(4):333–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baskaya A, Wilson C, Özcan Y (2004) Wayfinding in an unfamiliar environment. Environ Behav 36(6):839–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bell S, Archibald J (2011) Sketch mapping and geographic knowledge: what role for drawing ability? In: Wang J, Broelemann K, Chipofya M, Schwering A, Wallgrn JO (eds) An interdisciplinary approach to understanding and processing sketch maps, pp 5–14Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blades M, Medlicott I (1992) Developmental differences in the ability to give route directions from a map. J Environ Psychol 12(2):175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brakatsoulas S, Pfoser D, Salas R, Wenk C (2005) On map-matching vehicle tracking data. In: Proceedings of the 31st international conference on very large data bases, VLDB ’05. VLDB Endowment, pp 853–864Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Broelemann K (2011) A system for automatic localization and recognition of sketch map objects. In: Understanding and processing sketch maps, Proceedings of the Cosit 2011 workshop, pp 11–20Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chipofya M, Wang J, Schwering A (2011) Towards cognitively plausible spatial representations for sketch map alignment. In: Egenhofer M, Giudice N, Moratz R, Worboys M (eds) Spatial information theory. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 6899. Springer, Berlin, pp 20–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chittaro L, Burigat S (2005) Augmenting audio messages with visual directions in mobile guides: an evaluation of three approaches. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on human computer interaction with mobile devices & services, MobileHCI ’05. ACM, New York, pp 107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Corcoran P, Mooney P (2013) Characterising the metric and topological evolution of OpensTreetMap network representations. The European Physical Journal Special Topics 215(1):109–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Corcoran P, Mooney P, Bertolotto M (2013) Analysing the growth of openstreetmap networks. Spatial Statistics (accepted)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Couclelis H (1996) Verbal directions for way-finding: space, cognition, and language. In: Portugali J (ed) The construction of cognitive maps. Geojournal library, vol 32. Springer, Netherlands, pp 133–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Daniel M, Denis M (1998) Spatial descriptions as navigational aids: a cognitive analysis of route directions. Kognitionswissenschaft 7:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Denis M, Pazzaglia F, Cornoldi C, Bertolo L (1999) Spatial discourse and navigation: an analysis of route directions in the city of venice. Appl Cogn Psychol 13(2):145–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duckham M, Winter S, Robinson M (2010) Including landmarks in routing instructions. Journal of Location Based Services 4(1):28–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eccles D, Walsh S, Ingledew D (2002) The use of heuristics during route planning by expert and novice orienteers. J Sports Sci 20(4):327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fickas S, Sohlberg M, Hung P (2008) Route-following assistance for travelers with cognitive impairments: a comparison of four prompt modes. Int J Human-Comput Stud 66(12):876–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garling T, Lindberg E, Mantyla T (1983) Orientation in buildings: effects of familiarity, visual access, and orientation aids. J Appl Psychol 68(1):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goldstein B (2010) Cognitive psychology. Wadsworth PublishingGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goodman J, Brewster S, Gray P (2004) Using field experiments to evaluate mobile guides. In: Schmidt-Belz B (ed) HCI in mobile guides, workshop at mobile HCIGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goodman J, Brewster S, Gray P (2005) How can we best use landmarks to support older people in navigation? Behav Inf Technol 24(1):3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hart S, Staveland L (1988) Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): results of empirical and theoretical research. In: Hancock P, Meshkati N (eds) Human mental workload. North Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holscher C, Tenbrink T, Wiener J (2011) Would you follow your own route description? Cognitive strategies in urban route planning. Cognition 121(2):228–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hund A, Haney K, Seanor B (2008) The role of recipient perspective in giving and following wayfinding directions. Appl Cogn Psychol 22(7):896–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hund A, Minarik J (2006) Getting from here to there: spatial anxiety, wayfinding strategies, direction type, and wayfinding efficiency. Spat Cogn Comput 6(3):179–201Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hund A, Padgitt A (2010) Direction giving and following in the service of wayfinding in a complex indoor environment. J Environ Psychol 30(4):553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ishikawa T, Fujiwara H, Imai O, Okabe A (2008) Wayfinding with a gps-based mobile navigation system: a comparison with maps and direct experience. J Environ Psychol 28(1):74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Klippel A, Hirtle S, Davies C (2010) You-are-here maps: creating spatial awareness through map-like representations. Spat Cogn Comput 10(2–3):83–93Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klippel A, Tappe H, Habel C (2003) Pictorial representations of routes: chunking route segments during comprehension. In: Freksa C, Brauer W, Habel C, Wender K (eds) Spatial cognition III. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2685. Springer, Berlin, pp 1034–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kopf J, Agrawala M, Bargeron D, Salesin D, Cohen M (2010) Automatic generation of destination maps. ACM Trans Graph 29(6):158:1–158:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kray C, Elting C, Laakso K, Coors V (2003) Presenting route instructions on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on intelligent user interfaces, IUI ’03. ACM, New York, pp 117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li R, Klippel A (2012) Wayfinding in libraries: can problems be predicted? Journal of Map & Geography Libraries 8(1):21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lloyd R (1997) Spatial cognition: geographic environments. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lloyd R, Heivly C (1987) Systematic distortions in urban cognitive maps. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 77(2):191–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lovelace L, Hegarty M, Montello D (1999) Elements of good route directions in familiar and unfamiliar environments. In: Freksa C, Mark D (eds) Spatial information theory: cognitive and computational foundations of geographic information scienceGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Meilinger T, Hölscher C, Büchner S, Brösamle M (2007) How much information do you need? Schematic maps in wayfinding and self localisation. In: Barkowsky T, Knauff M, Ligozat G, Montello D (eds) Spatial cognition V reasoning, action, interaction. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 4387. Springer, Berlin, pp 381–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Meilinger T, Knauff M (2008) Ask for directions or use a map: a field experiment on spatial orientation and wayfinding in an urban environment. Journal of Spatial Science 53(2):13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mooney P, Corcoran P, Winstanley A (2010) Towards quality metrics for OpensTreetMap. In: Proceedings of the 18th SIGSPATIAL international conference on advances in geographic information systems. ACM, pp 514–517Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Padgitt A, Hund A (2012) How good are these directions? Determining direction quality and wayfinding efficiency. J Environ Psychol 32(2):164–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Raubal M, Egenhofer M (1998) Comparing the complexity of wayfinding tasks in built environments. Environ Plann, B Plann Des 25(6):895–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rehrl K, Hausler E, Leitinger S (2010) Comparing the effectiveness of GPS-enhanced voice guidance for pedestrians with metric- and landmark-based instruction sets. In: Fabrikant S, Reichenbacher T, van Kreveld M, Schlieder C (eds) Geographic information science, vol 6292. Springer, Berlin, pp 189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richter K, Hirtle S, Srinivas S, Firth R (2010) This is the tricky part: when directions become difficult. Journal of Spatial Information Science 1(1):53–73Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Richter K, Tomko M, Winter S (2008) A dialog-driven process of generating route directions. Comput Environ Urban Syst 32(3):233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rukzio E, Müller M, Hardy R (2009) Design, implementation and evaluation of a novel public display for pedestrian navigation: the rotating compass. In: Proceedings of the 27th international conference on human factors in computing systems, CHI ’09. ACM, New York, pp 113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Skubic M, Blisard S, Bailey C, Adams J, Matsakis P (2004) Qualitative analysis of sketched route maps: translating a sketch into linguistic descriptions. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern, Part B, Cybern 34(2):1275–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tenbrink T, Berbmann E, Konieczny L (2011) Wayfinding and description strategies in an unfamiliar complex building. In: Carlson L, Holscher C, Shipley T (eds) Proceedings of the 33rd annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tom AC, Tversky B (2012) Remembering routes: streets and landmarks. Appl Cogn Psychol 26(2):182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tomko M, Winter S (2009) Pragmatic construction of destination descriptions for urban environments. Spat Cogn Comput 9(1):1–29Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tu Huynh N, Doherty S (2007) Digital sketch-map drawing as an instrument to collect data about spatial cognition. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization 42(4):285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tversky B (1981) Distortions in memory for maps. Cogn Psychol 13(3):407–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tversky B, Lee P (1999) Pictorial and verbal tools for conveying routes. In: Freksa C, Mark D (eds) Spatial information theory. Cognitive and computational foundations of geographic information science. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 1661. Springer, Berlin, pp 752–752Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wang J, Li R (2012) An empirical study on pertinent aspects of sketch maps for navigation. In: IEEE international conference series on cognitive informatics and cognitive computing. Kyoto, JapanGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ward S, Newcombe N, Overton W (1986) Turn left at the church, or three miles north a study of direction giving and sex differences. Environ Behav 18(2):192–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Westphal M, Renz J (2011) Evaluating and minimizing ambiguities in qualitative route instructions. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGSPATIAL international conference on advances in geographic information systems, GIS ’11. ACM, New York, pp 171–180Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    White C, Bernstein D, Kornhauser A (2000) Some map matching algorithms for personal navigation assistants. Transp Res, Part C Emerg Technol 8(1–6):91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ziegler J, Hussein T, Munter D, Hofmann J, Linder T (2011) Generating route instructions with varying levels of detail. In: International conference on automotive user interfaces and interactive vehicular applicationsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padraig Corcoran
    • 1
  • Peter Mooney
    • 2
  • Michela Bertolotto
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and InformaticsUniversity College DublinDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceNational University of Ireland MaynoothMaynoothIreland

Personalised recommendations