, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 245–279 | Cite as

Blind and squaring-resistant watermarking of vectorial building layers

  • Julien Lafaye
  • Jean Béguec
  • David Gross-AmblardEmail author
  • Anne Ruas


Due to the ease of digital copy, watermarking is crucial to protect the intellectual property of rights owners. We propose an effective watermarking method for vectorial geographical databases, with the focus on the buildings layer. Embedded watermarks survive common geographical filters, including the essential squaring and simplification transformations, as well as deliberate removal attempts, e.g. by noise addition, cropping or over-watermarking. Robustness against the squaring transformation is not addressed by existing approaches. The impact on the quality of the data sets, defined as a composition of point accuracy and angular quality, is assessed through an extensive series of experiments. Our method is based on a quantization of the distance between the centroid of the building and its extremal vertex according to its orientation.


Watermarking Blind Squaring Buildings 



We would like to thank Eric Grosso for his technical support during our experiments and also for our fruitful discussions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julien Lafaye
    • 1
  • Jean Béguec
    • 4
  • David Gross-Amblard
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Anne Ruas
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratoire CEDRIC, Spécialité Informatique – CC 432Conservatoire national des arts & métiersParis Cedex 3France
  2. 2.INRIA SaclayParisFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire Le2i UMR CNRS 5158, Faculté des SciencesUniversité de BourgogneDijon CedexFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire COGITInstitut Géographique National (IGN)Saint Mandé CedexFrance

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