Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 383–390 | Cite as

Coefficient Analysis of Soft Soil Consolidation Based on Measurement of Stratified Settlement

  • Pingyuan Yang
  • Jiasheng Zhang
  • Huihua Hu
  • Xiaoen Wu
  • Xianfa Cao
  • Yi Chang
  • Yufei Liu
  • Jin Xu
Original paper


The coefficient of consolidation is an important parameter for calculating and predicting the consolidation settlement of soft soil. In this study, a back analysis method for the coefficient of consolidation is established based on field monitoring results of stratified settlement; the method can calculate both the coefficients of vertical consolidation, c v , and horizontal consolidation, c h , of soft soil at different moments. This new method overcomes the problems of traditional methods, which can calculate only one coefficient at a time. The use of the proposed method to determine c v and c h for the drainage consolidation of a thick layer of soft soil can compensate for the drawbacks of laboratory testing, which include insufficient consideration of the environmental factors affecting field consolidation, the distortion of experimental results with changes in these factors, and the inability to reasonably determine c h for soil layers. The new method is theoretically rigorous and reasonable as well as practically feasible in engineering. It is reasonable to use the coefficients of consolidation, back-calculated from the settlement observation data of earlier loading levels (not including the first level of loading), as parameters for consolidation prediction in later stages. In preloading drainage consolidation fields of soft soil, which are structurally strong and where obtaining suitable soil samples is difficult, it is necessary to set a certain number of stratified settlement observation points and use the back analysis of the field monitoring results of stratified settlement to determine the coefficient of soft soil consolidation.


Drainage consolidation Stratified settlement Vertical consolidation Coefficient of horizontal consolidation Back analysis 



This research was financially supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Provincial Department of Science and Technology (20151BAB206053) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51568001).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


  1. Asaoka A (1978) Observational procedure of settlement prediction. Soils Found 18(4):87–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bo MW, Bawajee R, Choa V (1998) Smear effect due to mandrel penetration. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on ground improvement techniques, Singapore: [s. n.], pp 83–92Google Scholar
  3. Chen YM, Tang XW, Wang J (2004) An analytical solution of one dimensional consolidation for soft sensitive soil ground. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 28(9):919–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chung SG, Kweon HJ, Jang WY (2014) Observational method for field performance of prefabricated vertical drains. Geotext Geomembr 42(4):405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cour FR (1971) Inflection point method for computing c v. J Soil Mech Found Eng ASCE 97(5):827–831Google Scholar
  6. CTAG 02-97, Engineering Society of China (1998) Code for design of plastic drainage belt foundation. China Water and Power Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  7. GB50290-98, State Standard of the People’s Republic of China (1998) Technical standard for applications of geosynthetics. China Planning Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  8. JGJ 79-2012, Ministry of Construction of the People’s Republic of China (2012) Technical code for ground treatment of buildings. China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  9. Lambe TW, Whitman RV (1979) Soil mechanics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Lou Y (2006) Variation of consolidation coefficient for soft soil in preloading improvement. Hydrosci Eng 04:46–50 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  11. Pandian NS, Sridharan A, Kumar KS (1992) A new method for the determination of coefficient of consolidation. Geotech Test J 15(1):74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Quang ND, Dang SM (2013) Settlement calculation and back-analysis of soil properties for a test embankment on a soft clay ground improved by PVD and vacuum-assisted preloading at a site in Vung Tau, Viet Nam. In: Multiphysical testing of soils and shales. Springer Ser Geomech Geoengin, pp 317–322Google Scholar
  13. Ru-long W (1993) Derivation for coefficient of consolidation from settlement observation. Chin J Geotech Eng 15(2):12–19 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  14. Scott RF (1961) New method of consolidation coefficient evaluation. J Soil Mech Found Div 87(1):29–41Google Scholar
  15. Seah TH, Tangthansup B, Wongsatian P (2004) Horizontal coefficient of consolidation of soft Bangkok clay. Geotech Test J 27(5):430–440Google Scholar
  16. Soderberg LO (1962) Consolidation theory applied to foundation pile time effects. Geotechnique 11(3):217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sridharan A, Murthy NS, Prakash K (1987) Rectangular hyperbola method of consolidation analysis. Géotechnique 37(3):355–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Torstensson BA (1975) Pore pressure sounding instrument. In: Proceedings of the ASCE specialty conference on in situ measurement of soil properties ISMOSP. Raleigh, pp 48–54Google Scholar
  19. Wang J, Chen Y-M (2003) Analytical solution to 1-D consolidation of homogeneous structured soft foundation. J Hydraul Eng 34(3):19–24 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  20. Zhang C-S (2005) Study on the properties of deformation and consolidation of marine clay at Shenzhen Houhai Bay. Dissertation, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  21. Zhang C-S, Gao M-X, Qiang X-J (2013) Variation laws of consolidation coefficient of marine clay in Houhai Bay of Shenzhen. Chin J Geotech Eng 35(S1):247–252 (in Chinese) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pingyuan Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiasheng Zhang
    • 1
  • Huihua Hu
    • 2
  • Xiaoen Wu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xianfa Cao
    • 4
  • Yi Chang
    • 5
  • Yufei Liu
    • 1
  • Jin Xu
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Hunan Provincial Communications Planning Survey and Design InstituteChangshaChina
  3. 3.China Energy Engineering Group Equipment Co., LtdBeijingChina
  4. 4.College of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureGuilin University of TechnologyGuilinChina
  5. 5.School of Civil and Architecture EngineeringEast China University of TechnologyNanchangChina
  6. 6.China International Engineering Consulting CorporationBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations