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Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1041–1058 | Cite as

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties of Microfine Cement Grouted Sands

  • I. N. Markou
  • A. I. Droudakis
Original paper

Abstract

An experimental investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of distance from the injection point and of parameters pertinent to the cement, the suspension and the sand on the effectiveness of microfine cement grouts. Three different cement types, each at three different gradations having nominal maximum grain sizes of 100, 20 and 10 μm, were used. Grouting effectiveness was evaluated by injecting suspensions with water to cement (W/C) ratios of 1, 2 and 3, by weight, into five uniform sand fractions with different grain sizes and eight composite sands with different gradations, using a specially constructed apparatus. Unconfined compression and permeability tests were conducted on the resulting grouted sand specimens, after curing for 28 and 90 days. Microfine cement grouted sands obtained unconfined compression strength values of up to 14.9 MPa and permeability coefficients as low as 1.3 × 10−6 cm/s or by up to 5 orders of magnitude lower than those of clean sands. The W/C ratio and the bleed capacity of suspensions as well as the effective grain size and the permeability coefficient of sands are very important parameters, since they affect substantially the grouted sand properties and are correlated satisfactorily with them. The strength and permeability of grouted sands can increase, decrease or remain constant with distance from the injection point depending on the easiness of suspension penetration into the sands. The improvement of grouted sand properties with increasing distance from the injection point is consistent with the observed increase of the cement content of grouted sands.

Keywords

Grouting Microfine cements Laboratory investigation Grouted sands Permeability Strength 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research effort reported herein is part of the research project PENED-03ED527 which was co-financed by the European Union—European Social Fund (75 %) and the Greek Ministry of Development—General Secretariat for Research and Technology (25 %). The contribution of TITAN Cement Company S.A. was substantial for the selection, chemical analysis, pulverization and grain size analysis of the cements.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil EngineeringDemocritus University of ThraceXanthiGreece

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