Advertisement

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 399–416 | Cite as

Theoretical Concept to Understand Plan and Design Smooth Blasting Pattern

  • S. K. Mandal
  • M. M. Singh
  • S. Dasgupta
Original Paper

Abstract

Considering different mechanical cutting tools for excavation of rock, drilling and blasting is said to be inexpensive and at the same time most acceptable and compatible to any geo-excavation condition. Depending upon strength properties of in-situ rock mass, characteristics of joint pattern and required quality of blasting, control blasting techniques viz., pre-split and smooth blasting are commonly implemented to achieve an undamaged periphery rock-wall. To minimize magnitude of damage or overbreak, the paper emphasized that in-situ stresses and re-distribution of stresses during the process of excavation should be considered prior to selection of explosive parameters and implementation of any suitable blast pattern. Rock structure being not massive in nature, the paper firstly explains the influence of discontinuities and design parameters on smooth-wall blasting. Considering the empirical equations for estimation of stress wave’s magnitude and its attenuation characteristics through transmitting medium, the paper has put forward a mathematical model for smooth blasting pattern. The model firstly illustrates that rock burden for each hole should be sub-divided into thin micro strips/slabs to understand the characteristics of wave transmission through the medium and lastly with the help of beam theory of structural dynamics have put forward a mathematical model to analyze and design an effective smooth blasting pattern to achieve an undamaged periphery rock-wall.

Key words

Blast parameters Borehole pressure Attenuation characteristics Characteristic of joint orientation Smooth blasting 

References

  1. Abraham FF (1994) Instability dynamics of fracture. A computer simulation investigation. Phys Rev Lett 73:272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton NR (1976) The shear strength of rock and rock joints. Int J Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 131(10):1–24Google Scholar
  3. Barton NR, Choubey V (1977) The shear strength of rock joints in the theory and practice. Rock Mech 10(12):1–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton NR, Lien R, Lunde J (1974) Engineering classification of rock masses for design of tunnel support. Rock Mech 6(4):189–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bermudez PG, Jimeno CL, Sanchidrian JA (1999) Improvement of productivity in quarrying dimension stone using blasting and drilling techniques. In: VIth international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting. South African Institute of Moining and Metallurgy, Johhanesburg, pp 241–246Google Scholar
  6. Birkimer DL (1971) A possible fracture criteria for the dynamic tensile strength of rock. In: Proceedings of the 12th symposium rock mechanism (Ed. Clark GB), Baltimore, Maryland, pp 573–590 Google Scholar
  7. Blastingtechnology, talking technically, M/s Atlas Copco, (internet search), 1990. Extract from Stig Olofsson’s book entitled “Applied Explosive technology for Construction and Mining published by Apples, PO Box, 71, S-64043, Arla, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogdanoff I (1996) Vibration measurement in the damage zone in tunnel blasting. Rock fragmentation by blasting FRAGBLAST-5, Balkema PublisherGoogle Scholar
  9. Brent GF, Smith GE (1999) The detection of blast damage by borehole pressure measurement. In: Proceedings of the 6th symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting FRAGBLAST-6, Johannesburg, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown ET, Green SJ, Sinha KP (1981) The influence of rock anisotropy on hole deviation in rotary drilling—a review. J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 18:387–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiappetta RF (1991) Pre-splitting and controlled blasting techniques including air decks and dimension stone criteria. In: Chiappetta RF (ed) Proceedings of blast technology, instrumentation and explosives applications seminar, san Diego, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiappetta FR (1994) New findings on the impact of an explosive VOD on blast results. In: Proceedings of the 12th annual conference on explosive and blasting technology Austin, Texas, JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  13. Clader P (1977) Pit slope manual. Canmet Report 77–14. Chapter 7, 13–22. CANMET Canada Centre for Mineral & Energy Technology, Ministry of Supply & Services, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  14. Colback PSB, Wild BL (1965) The influence of moisture content on the compressive strength of rock. In: Proceedings of 3rd Canadian rock mechanic symposium, Toronto, pp 65–83Google Scholar
  15. Cunningham CVB (2000) The effect of timing precision on control of blasting effects. In: Holmberg R (ed) Conference on explosive and blasting technique. Balkema Publisher, Rotterdam, pp 123–127Google Scholar
  16. Cunningham CVB, Goetzsche AF (1996) The specification of blast damage limitations in tunneling contracts. Tunnel Undergr Space Technol 5(3):23–27Google Scholar
  17. Daehnke A, Rossmanith HP, Knasmiller (1996) Blast induced dynamic fracture propagation. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, pp 13–24Google Scholar
  18. Dunn P, Cocker A (1995) Pre-splitting wall control for surface coal mines. In: Proceedings of EXPLO’95 conference Brisbane 407 Sept, AusIMM, Melbourne, pp 307–314Google Scholar
  19. Fordyee DL, Fourney WL, Dick RD, Wang XJ (1993) Effects of joints on stress wave transmission. In: Proceedings of 4th international symposium on rock fragmentation, pp 211–219Google Scholar
  20. Fourney WL (1993) A discussion of blast-induced overbreak around excavation. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on rock fragmentation by Blasting (Ed. Rossamanith), Vienna, Austria, pp 161–166Google Scholar
  21. Fourney WL, Dick RD (1995) The utilization of explosive loading as a non-destructive evaluation tool in geological materials. Int J Solids Struct 32(17/18):2511–2522 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forsyth WW (1993) A discussion of blast-induced overbreak around underground excavations. Rock fragmentation by blasting, FRAGBLAST-4, pp 161–166Google Scholar
  23. Forsyth WW, Moss AE (1990) Observations of blasting and damage around development openings. In: 92nd Canadian institute min metall annual general meeting, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  24. Freeman R, Roberts B (2002) Blast design & Optimization at Carrol Cave, Missori, 10820 Mining Industry Project: Formulation, University of South Australia, Faculty of Engg and Env, School of Geosciences, Minerals & Civil Engg, Online Search, YahooGoogle Scholar
  25. Gunnar N (2001) Drilling accuracy in underground construction, World Tunnelling (Internet Search)Google Scholar
  26. Guo ZQ (1982) Wave in solid objects. Earthquake Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  27. Hagan TN (1982) Controlling blast induced cracking around large caverns. In: Proceedings of the ISRM symposium on rock mechanics related to caverns and pressure shafts, Achen, West Germany, pp 1155–1167Google Scholar
  28. Harries G (1978) Breakage of rock by explosives. Rock breaking—equipment and technology. Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Parkville, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  29. Henrych J (1979) The dynamics of explosion and its use. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoek E (1998) Rock engineering (Course notes by Everest Hoek) 312 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoek E, Bray JW (1977) Rock slope engineering. Institution of Min Metall, London, 401 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Holmberg R, Persson PA (1979) Design of tunnel perimeter blast hole patterns to prevent rock damage. IMM Proceedings on tunnelling, London, 12–16 March, pp 280–283Google Scholar
  33. Holmberg R, Persson PA (1980) Design of tunnel perimeter blasthole patterns to prevent rock damage. Trans Inst Min Metall vol A: 37–70, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  34. Hustrulid W (1994) The practical blast damage zone in drift driving at the Kiruna Mine. In: Skadezon vid tunnel & tunnel driving. Swedish rock engineering research Report No. 8, SveBeFo, Stockholm, pp 75–125Google Scholar
  35. Hustrulid W (1999) Blasting principles for open pit mining, vol 1 & 2, Sect. 10.4.4 (vol 1) and Chapter, 14 (vol 2). A. A. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  36. Hustrulid W, Bennet R, Ashland F, Lenjani M (1992) A new method for predicting the extension of the blast damaged zone. In: Proceedings of blasting conference, Nitro Nobel, 15–16 JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  37. Johansson CH, Persson PA (1970) Detonics of high explosives. Academic Press, London, 330 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Johansson CH, Persson PA (1974) Fragmentation systems 3rd International Congress Rock Mechanism Denver, pp 1957–1966Google Scholar
  39. John M (1974) Time-dependence of fracture process materials. Advance in Rock Mech, Proceedings of 3rd congress of the international society for rock mechanism, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, vol IIA, pp 330–335Google Scholar
  40. Katsabanis PD, Yeung C (1993) Effects of low amplitude shock waves on commercial explosives—the sympathetic detonation problem. In: Proceedings of the 4th symposium on rock fragmentation by Blasting_FRAGBLAST-4, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  41. Katsabanis PD, Yeung C, Fritz G, Heater R (1994) Explosives malfunction from sympathetic detonation to shock desentitization. In: Proceedings of the tenth symposium on explosive and blasting research, Austin, Texas, JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  42. Keegan MM, Bennett P, Adamson W (2000) A preliminary study of explosive selection for optimum perimeter/wall control in development blasting. In: Holmberg R (ed) Conference on explosive and blasting technique. Balkema Publisher, Rotterdam, pp 327–333Google Scholar
  43. Khoshrou SH, Mohanty B (1996) Role of discontinuity on stress field in wall control blasting. In: Mohanty B (ed) Rock fragmentation by blasting. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 207–216Google Scholar
  44. Kolsky H (1983) Stress waves in solids. Dover Publications Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Korea HighWay Corporation (2000) Design guide of the optimum blasting patterns for minimizing overbreakGoogle Scholar
  46. Kou S, Rustan A (1992) Burden related to blasthole diameter in rock blasting. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 29(6):543–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Krauland N (1994) Experiences from damage zones in the mining business. In: Skadezonvid (ed) Tunneldriving. Swedish Rock Engineering Research Report No 8, SveBeFo, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  48. Laubscher DH (1975) Class distinction in rock masses, coal, gold base minerals, S Africa, 23 August, pp 37–50Google Scholar
  49. Laubscher DH (1977) Geomechanic classification of jointed rock masses—mining applications. J Inst Eng, UK, pp A1–A48Google Scholar
  50. Laubscher DH, Taylor HW (1976) The importance of geomechanics of jointed rock masses in mining operations. International symposium on exploration for rock engineering, Johannesburg, 1–5 NovemberGoogle Scholar
  51. Laubscher DH, Taylor HW (1990) A geomechanics classification system for rating of rock mass in mine design. J S Afr Inst Min Metall 90(10):257–273Google Scholar
  52. Lee RA, Rodgers JA, Whitaker KC (2000) The origin and effects of inter-deck pressure in decked blasts. In: Holmberg R (ed) Conference on explosive and blasting technique. Balkema Publisher, Rotterdam, pp 347–353Google Scholar
  53. Lewandowski T, Luan Mai VK, Danell R (1996) Influence of discontinuities on presplitting effectiveness. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, Montreal, Canada, August, pp 217–225Google Scholar
  54. Li W, Chen J (2001) Study on smooth blasting results in jointed and fractured rock. J China Univ Geosci 12(2):145–149Google Scholar
  55. Liqing L, Katsabanis PD (1996) Numerical modeling of the effects of air decking/decoupling in production and controlled blasting. In: Proceedings of 5th international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, Montreal, pp 319–330Google Scholar
  56. Liu Q (2002) Estimation of dynamic pressure around a fully loaded blasthole in rock. In: VIIth international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, Beijing, China, pp 267–272Google Scholar
  57. Liu Q, Tidman JP (1995) Estimation of the dynamic pressure around a fully loaded borehole. Canmet/MRL technical report 95–014, Canmet/MRL expermental mine, PO Box 1300, Valda’r QuebecGoogle Scholar
  58. Mandal SK, Singh MM, Bhagat NK, Dasgupta S (2005) Causes of overbreak and influence of blast parameters for smooth undamaged wall. In: International symposium on advances in mining technology and management, IIT, Kharagpur, November 30–December 2Google Scholar
  59. Mandal SK, Singh MM, Bhagat NK, Dasgupta S (2006) Charge parameters and its impact on ground vibration. First Asian Mining Congress, Indian Mining, Geological and Metalurgical Institute, Kolkata, 16–18 Jan, pp 405–411Google Scholar
  60. Mandal SK, Singh MM, Bhagat NK, Dasgupta S (2007) Model for energy-based evaluation of blast waves to assess safety of structures. Int J Mining, Reclamat Environ 21(2):111–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McKenzie CK, Scherpenisse CR, Arriagada J, Jones JP (1995) Aplication of computer assisted modelling to final wall blast design. In: Proceedings of Expo’95 conference, pp 289–290 (Australasia Inst of Min and Metallurgy)Google Scholar
  62. McKnow AF (1986) Perimeter control blasting for underground excavations in fractured and weathered rock. Bulletin of the association of Engineering geologists XXIII(4):461–478 Google Scholar
  63. Muller B, Bohnke R (2002) Theoretical simulation and practical results at the optimization of blasts in rock masses based on momentum theory. In: VII international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, Beijing, China, 11–15 August, pp 226–235Google Scholar
  64. Nie S (1999) Borehole pressure in blast holes, measurement in granite blocks versus estimation. SveBeFo Report 42, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  65. Nyberg U, Fjellborg S (2000) Controlled drifting and estimation of blast damage. In: Holmberg R (ed) Proceedings of first world conference on explosive and blasting technology. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 207–216Google Scholar
  66. Nyberg U, Fjellborg S, Olsson M, Outcherlony F (2000) Judging blast damage in drift perimeters. Vibration measurements, damage prediction and fracture mapping in magnetite. SwedishRock Engineering Research Report No. 50. SveBeFo, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  67. Olsson M, Bergqvist I (1993) Crack lengths from explosives in small diameter boreholes. In: Rossamanith (ed) Proceedings of 4th international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 193–196Google Scholar
  68. Olsson M, Bergqvist I (1996) Crack lengths from explosive in multiple hole blasting. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 187–191Google Scholar
  69. Outcherlony F (1997) Prediction of crack lengths in rock after cautious blasting with zero inter-hole delay. Int J Blast Fragment, pp 417–444Google Scholar
  70. Ouchterlony F, Sjoberg C, Jonsson BA (1993) Blast damage prediction from vibration measurements at the SKB underground Laboratories at Aspo in Sweden. In: Proceedings of the 9th annual symposium on explosive and blasting research. ISEE, Cliveland, USA, pp 189–197Google Scholar
  71. Ouchterlony F, Olsson M, Bavik SO (2000) Perimeter blasting in a 130 m road cut in Gneiss with holes with radial bottom slots. In: Holmberg R (ed) Proceedings of 1st world conference on explosive and blasting technique, pp 225–234Google Scholar
  72. Palmstorm A (1996) Rmi—a system for characterizing rock mass strength for use in rock engineering. J Rock Mech Tunnel Technol, India 29(1):69–108Google Scholar
  73. Paventi M, Lizotte Y, Scoble M, Mohanty B (1996) Mesauring rock mass damage in drifting. In: Mohanty B (ed) Rock fragmentation by blasting. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 131–138Google Scholar
  74. Persson PA, Holmberg R, Lee J (1993) Rock blasting and explosive engineering. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  75. Price DG, Knill JL (1966) A study of the tensile strength of isotropic rocks. In: Proceedings of 1st congress international society rock mechanism Lisbon, pp 439–442Google Scholar
  76. Pusch R, Stanfors R (1992) The zone of disturbance around blasted tunnels at depth. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 29(5):447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pusch R, Stanfors R (1993) Disturbance of rock around blasted tunnels. In: Proceedings of the IVth international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting—FRAGBLAST-4, Vienna/Austria, 5–8 July, pp 153–160Google Scholar
  78. Sanchidrian JA, Bermudez PG, Jimeno CL (1998) On borehole pressure and spacing in cautious blasting with an extension to water filled holes. Int J Blast Fragment, FRAGBLAST 2:235–248Google Scholar
  79. Sanchidrian JA, Segarra P, Lopez LM (2007) Energy components in rock blasting. Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 44(1):130–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scoble M, Lizotte Y, Paventi M (1996) Rock mass damage from blasting: characterization and impact. In: Franklin J, Katsabanis P (eds) Proceedings of the workshop on measurement of blast fragmentation. A. A. Balkema, pp 225–235Google Scholar
  81. Seto M, Nag DK, Vutukuri VS (1996) Evaluation of rock mass damage using acoustic emission technique in the laboratory. In: Mohanty B (ed) Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting. Montreal, Canada, pp 139–145Google Scholar
  82. Simha KRY (1996) Effect of open joint on stress wave propagation. In: Mohanty B (ed) Vth international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, pp 81–86Google Scholar
  83. Singh MM (1981) Strength of rock physical properties of rocks and minerals, vol 2. McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, pp 83–121Google Scholar
  84. Singh SP (1992) Investigation of blast damage mechanism in underground mines. Report to the Mining Research Directorate, Laurentian UniversityGoogle Scholar
  85. Singh SP (1995) Mechanics of cut blasting. Trans Instit Mining Metallur 104:A134–A138Google Scholar
  86. Singh SP (1996) Mechanics of tracer blasting. In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 14. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 41–50Google Scholar
  87. Singh SP (1998) The effects of rock mass characterization on blasthole deviation. CIM Bull 91(1016):90–95Google Scholar
  88. Singh SP (2000) The influence of rock mass characterization on overbreak control. In: Proceedings of the 26th annual conference on explosive and blasting techniques. Anaheim 2:117–129Google Scholar
  89. Singh SP, Xavier P (2005) Causes, impact and control of overbreak in underground excavations. Tunnel Undergr Space Technol 20:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sjoberg C (1979) Cracking zones around slender borehole charges. In: Proceedings of annual discussion meeting BK-79. Swedish rock construction committee, Stockholm, pp 53–98Google Scholar
  91. Sjoberg C, Larsson B, Lindstrom M, Palmqvist K (1997) A blasting method for controlled crack extension and safety underground. ASF Project No. 77/224, Nitro Consult, GothenburgGoogle Scholar
  92. Song J, Kim K (1995) Micro-mechanical modelling to study smooth blasting. SME annual meeting, Denver, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  93. Szuladzinski G (1993) response of rock medium to expl. borehole pressure. In: Proceedings off the 4th symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, FRAGBLAST-4, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  94. Tariq SM, Worsey PN (1996) An investigation into the effect of varying joint aperture and nature of surface on pre-splitting. In: Proceedings of 12th symposium on explosive and blasting research, Orlando, pp 186–195Google Scholar
  95. Taylor LM, Chen EP, Kuszamul JS (1986) Microcrack induced damage accumulation in brittle rock under dynamic loading. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 55:301–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tezuka M, Hasui A, Kudo Y, Nakagawa K (1999) A study of blasting damage in surrounding rock mass of Cavern. Challenges for the 21st century, Proceedings of world tunnel congress’99 blasting. Balkema, pp 791–797Google Scholar
  97. Thuro K, Plinninger RJ, Zah S, Schutz S (2001a) Scale effects in rock strength propertiues. Part-I: Unconfined compressive test and Brazilian Test. ISRM regional symposium. EUROCK 2001. Rock Mechanics a Challenge for Society, ESPOO, Finland, 3–7 JuneGoogle Scholar
  98. Thuro K, Plinninger RJ, Zah S, Schutz S (2001b) Scale effects in rock strength propertiues. Part-2: Point load test and point load strength index. ISRM regional Symp. EUROCK 2001. Rock Mechanics a Challenge for Society, ESPOO, Finland, 3–7 JuneGoogle Scholar
  99. Worsey P, Qu S (1987) Effect of joint separation and filling on presplit blasting. In: Proceedings of the 3rd mini symposium on explosive and blasting research, Miami, USA, pp 26–40Google Scholar
  100. Worsey P, Farmer IW, Matheson GD (1981) The mechanics of presplitting in discontinuous rock. In: Proceedings of the 22nd US rock mechanics symposium UO, Missouri, Rolla, USA, pp 205–210Google Scholar
  101. Wu MB, Gao JB (1987) Experimental study on dynamic properties of the Yangquan coal. Chinese J Coal 3:31–37Google Scholar
  102. Wu A, Lin B, Wang H, Zhang K (2002) Study of blasting without pre-cut slot by using cylindrical explosive, VII international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting, Beijing, China, 11–15 August, pp 208–211Google Scholar
  103. Yamamoto M, Ichijo T, Moorooka K, Kaneko K (1999) Experimental and theoretical study on smooth blasting with electronic delay detonators. Int J Blast Fragment 3:3–24Google Scholar
  104. Yang RL, Bawden WF, Talebi S, Rocque P (1993) An integrated technique for vibration dian Mining and Metallurgical Buletin, 86, 972Google Scholar
  105. Yang RL, Bawden WF, Katsabanis PD (1996) A new constitutive model of blast damage. Int J Rock Mech, Mining Sci Geomech, Abstr 33:245–254Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Institute of Mining & Fuel ResearchDhanbadIndia
  2. 2.KolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations