Effects of pig and dairy slurry application on N and P leaching from crop rotations with spring cereals and forage leys
Two crop rotations dominated by spring cereals and grass/clover leys on a clay soil were studied over 2 years with respect to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching associated with pig or dairy slurry application in April, June and October. Leaching losses of total N (TN), total P (TP), nitrate-N and dissolved reactive P (DRP) were determined in separately tile-drained field plots (four replicates). Mean annual DRP leaching after October application of dairy slurry (17 kg P ha−1) to growing grass/clover was 0.37 kg ha−1. It was significantly higher than after October application of pig slurry (13 kg ha−1) following spring cereals (0.16 kg ha−1) and than in the unfertilised control (0.07 kg P ha−1). The proportion of DRP in TP in drainage water from the grass/clover crop rotation (35 %) was higher than from the spring cereal rotation (25 %) and the control (14 %). The grass/clover rotation proved to be very robust with respect to N leaching, with mean TN leaching of 10.5 kg ha−1 year−1 compared with 19.2 kg ha−1 year−1 from the cereal crop rotation. Pig slurry application after cereals in October resulted in TN leaching of 25.7 kg ha−1 compared with 7.0 kg ha−1 year−1 after application to grass/clover in October and 19.1 kg ha−1 year−1 after application to spring cereals in April. In conclusion, these results show that crop rotations dominated by forage leys need special attention with respect to DRP leaching and that slurry application should be avoided during wet conditions or combined with methods to increase adsorption of P to soil particles.
KeywordsNitrogen leaching Phosphorus leaching Crop rotation experiment Pig slurry Dairy slurry Time of slurry application
This study received financial support from the Swedish Farmers’ Foundation of Agricultural Research.
- APHA (1985) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. American Public Health Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Egnér H, Riehm H, Domingo WR (1960) Untersuchungen über die chemische Bodenanalyse als Grundlage für die Beurteilung des Nährstoffzustandes der Boden, 26th edn. II Chemische Extraktionsmethoden zur Phosphor- und Kaliumbestimmung. Kunlinga Landboukshogskolans Annaler, German, pp 199–215Google Scholar
- Karlsson I, Håkansson A (1983) Studies of soil profiles of Swedish arable soils. Report 133. Division of Agricultural Hydrotechnics, Department of Soil Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (in Swedish)Google Scholar
- KLS (1965) Kungliga Lantbruksstyrelsens kungörelse med bestämmelser för under sökning av jord vid statens lantbrukskemiska kontrollanstalt och lantbrukskemisk kontrollstation och lantbrukskemisk station med av staten fastställda stadgar. Kungliga Lantbruksstyrelsens kungörelser 1 (in Swedish)Google Scholar
- Lindén B, Wallgren B (1993) Nitrogen mineralization after leys ploughed in early or late autumn. Swed J Agric Res 23:77–89Google Scholar
- Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD, Schabenberger O (2006) SAS for mixed models, 2nd edn. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Aronsson H, Bergström L, Sharpley A (2012b) Phosphorus leaching from loamy sand and clay loam topsoils after application of pig slurry. SpringerPlus 1:53. http://www.springerplus.com/content/pdf/2193-1801-1-53.pdf
- Olesen JE, Askegaard M, Rasmussen IA (2000) Design of an organic farming crop rotation experiment. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 50:13–21Google Scholar
- Turtola E, Jaakkola A (1995) Loss of phosphorus by surface runoff and leaching from a heavy clay soil under barley and grass ley in Finland. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 45:159–165Google Scholar
- Ulén B (2006) A simplified risk assessment for losses of dissolved reactive phosphorus through drainage pipes from agriculture soils. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 56:307–314Google Scholar
- Wallgren B, Lindén B (1994) Effects of catch crops and ploughing times on soil mineral nitrogen. Swed J Agric Res 24(2):67–75Google Scholar