Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 81, Issue 3, pp 267–278 | Cite as

Meat bone meal and fox manure as P sources for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) grown on a limed soil

  • Kari Ylivainio
  • Risto Uusitalo
  • Eila Turtola
Research Article

Abstract

Phosphorus (P)-rich by-products, such as meat and bone meal (MBM) and fur animal manures, are potential P sources in plant production systems. However, the solubility of P and its availability to plants in these forms has not been evaluated. We characterized P solubility in MBM, fox manures (FoxM) and dairy manure (DairyM) by Hedley fractionation and assessed P availability for ryegrass in a pot experiment. Up to 81% of P was water-soluble in DairyM, but only about 3 and 5–28% was soluble in MBM and FoxM products, respectively. Of the P in MBM and FoxM, 90 and 65–89%, respectively, was soluble only in 1 M HCl. Most of the P was inorganic; DairyM contained the highest share (14%) of organic P. Based on ryegrass yields and P uptake in a 3-year pot experiment with three P levels (25, 50 and 100 mg kg−1), P availability was equal in the DairyM and superphosphate (SP) treatments. Compared with the availability of P in DairyM and SP, 19 and 35–54% of the P in MBM and FoxM, respectively, was immediately available to the plant; for the 3-year period with ten ryegrass cuts, the respective P availabilities increased to 63 and 69–87%. Additions of the sparingly soluble P sources MBM and FoxM increased the acid-soluble P concentrations in the experimental soil, with MBM having the strongest effect. However, the acid-soluble P fraction decreased with time. Although the immediate bioavailability of P in sparingly soluble P sources was lower than that in DairyM and SP, our results suggest that their use as a long-term P supply for perennial plants in non-calcareous soils should be encouraged.

Keywords

Dairy manure Fox manure Meat and bone meal P availability P fractionation Ryegrass 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank research assistant Pirkko Mäki and laboratory technician Anja Lehtonen for their skillful technical assistance with the pot experiment and the related analyses. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Finnish Fur Breeders’ Association and Honkajoki Oy are gratefully acknowledged for funding.

References

  1. Antikainen R, Lemola R, Nousiainen J, Sokka L, Esala M, Huhtanen P, Rekolainen S (2005) Stocks and flows of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish food production and consumption system. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:287–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker AM, Trimm JR, Sikora FJ (1989) Availability of phosphorus in bone meal. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 72:867–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bélanger G, Brégard A, Michaud R (2002) Phosphorus uptake and concentration of timothy genotypes under varying N applications. Crop Sci 42:2044–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breeze VG, Robson AD, Hopper MJ (1985) The uptake of phosphate by plants from flowing nutrient solution III. Effect of changed phosphate concentrations on the growth and distribution of phosphate within plants of Lolium perenne L. J Exp Bot 36:725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brink GE, Pederson GA, Sistani KR, Fairbrother TE (2001) Uptake of selected nutrients by temperate grasses and legumes. Agron J 93:887–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen CR, Condron LM, Davis MR, Sherlock RR (2002) Phosphorus dynamics in the rhizosphere of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.). Soil Biol Biochem 34:487–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chien SH, Menon RG (1995) Factors affecting the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock for direct application. Fert Res 41:227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dao TH, Sikora LJ, Hamasaki A, Chaney RL (2001) Manure phosphorus extractability as affected by aluminum- and iron by-products and aerobic composting. J Environ Qual 30:1693–1698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Elonen P (1971) Particle-size analysis of soil. Acta Agric Fenn 122:1–122Google Scholar
  10. FAO (1998) World reference base for soil resources. World Soil Resources Report 84. FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  11. Föhse D, Claassen N, Jungk A (1988) Phosphorus efficiency of plants I. External and internal P requirement and P uptake efficiency of different plant species. Plant Soil 110:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grant CA, Flaten DN, Tomasiewicz DJ, Sheppard SC (2001) The importance of early season phosphorus nutrition. Can J Plant Sci 81:211–224Google Scholar
  13. Guo F, Yost RS, Hue NV, Evensen CI, Silva JA (2000) Changes in phosphorus fractions in soils under intensive plant growth. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1681–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Güsewell S (2004) N:P ratios in terrestrial plants: variation and functional significance. New Phytol 164:243–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haynes RJ, Mokolobate MS (2001) Amelioration of Al toxicity and P deficiency in acid soils by additions of organic residues: a critical review of the phenomenon and the mechanisms involved. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 59:47–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Helal HM, Sauerbeck DR (1984) Influence of plant roots on C and P metabolism in soil. Plant Soil 76:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holford ICR, Hird C, Lawrie R (1997) Effects of animal effluents on the phosphorus sorption characteristics of soils. Aust J Soil Res 35:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jeng A, Haraldsen TK, Vagstad N, Grønlund A (2004) Meat and bone meal as nitrogen fertilizer to cereals in Norway. Agric Food Sci 13:268–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jeng AS, Haraldsen TK, Grønlund A, Pedersen PA (2006) Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer to cereals and ryegrass. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 76:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones DL (1998) Organic acids in the rhizosphere—a critical review. Plant Soil 205:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Junge A, Werner W (1989) Investigations on interactions of phosphorus compounds in partially acidulated phosphate rock and fertilizer effectiveness. Fert Res 20:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lamothe PJ, Fries TL, Consul JJ (1986) Evaluation of a microwave oven system for the dissolution of geologic samples. Anal Chem 58:1881–1886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. MMM (2004) Mid-term evaluation of the Horizontal Rural Development Programme. (In Finnish with English summary). MMM:n julkaisuja 1/2004, VammalaGoogle Scholar
  24. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 27:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. O’Connor GA, Sarkar D, Brinton SR, Elliott HA, Martin FG (2004) Phytoavailability of biosolids phosphorus. J Environ Qual 33:703–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Øgaard AF (1996) Effect of fresh and composted cattle manure on phosphate retention in soil. Acta Agric Scand Sect B 46:98–105Google Scholar
  27. Sharpley AN, Moyer B (2000) Phosphorus forms in manure and compost and their release during simulated rainfall. J Environ Qual 29:1462–1469Google Scholar
  28. Toal ME, Yeomans C, Killham K, Meharg AA (2000) A review of rhizosphere carbon flow modelling. Plant Soil 222:263–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Turtola E, Yli-Halla M (1999) Fate of phosphorus applied in slurry and mineral fertilizer: accumulation in soil and release into surface runoff water. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 55:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Uusitalo R, Ylivainio K, Turtola E, Kangas A (2007) Accumulation and translocation of sparsely soluble manure phosphorus in different types of soils after long-term excessive inputs. Agric Food Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  31. Vuorinen J, Mäkitie O (1955) The method of soil testing in use in Finland. Agrogeol Publ 63:1–44Google Scholar
  32. Yli-Halla M (1991) Phosphorus supplying capacities of soils previously fertilized with different rates of P. J Agric Sci Finl 63:75–83Google Scholar
  33. Zoysa AKN, Loganathan P, Hedley MJ (1997) A technique for studying rhizosphere processes in tree crops: soil phosphorus depletion around camellia (Camellia japonica L.) roots. Plant Soil 190:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zoysa AKN, Loganathan P, Hedley MJ (1999) Phosphorus utilisation efficiency and depletion of phosphate fractions in the rhizosphere of three tea (Camellia sinensis L.) clones. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 53:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MTT Agrifood Research FinlandJokioinenFinland

Personalised recommendations