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Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 241–254 | Cite as

Chemical Nature and Diversity of Phosphorus in New Zealand Pasture Soils Using 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Sequential Fractionation

  • R. W. McDowell
  • L. M. Condron
  • I. Stewart
  • V. Cave
Article

Abstract

Information on the phosphorus (P) forms of pasture soils is central to agricultural and environmental sustainability. We used a combination of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of NaOH–EDTA extracts and sequential fractionation to investigate P forms, with an emphasis on organic P in relation to environmental and biophysical variables, in 24 diverse pasture soils taken from around New Zealand (organic C 19–102 g kg−1, total P 116–2746 mg kg−1, pH 5.2–7.0). Soils were separated by cluster analysis of soil physicochemical properties and sequentially extracted P pools into those either derived from volcanic-ash materials or not. This separation was also evident for organic P species in NaOH–EDTA extracts, which removed about 75% of total soil organic P. The major organic P compound class was monoesters (24–60% of extracted P), made up of 14 to 91% myo-inositol hexakisphosphate. The next largest organic P class was diesters (0–4% of P extracted), which were enriched in volcanic-ash soils (monoester to diester ratio = 14) compared to non volcanic-ash soils (ratio = 30). Correlation analysis indicated that mean annual temperature had a significant negative and positive effect on monoester and diester concentrations, respectively. This was attributed to better physical protection of monoesters (especially inositol phosphates) from mineralization, and increased diesters from microbial activity and biological turnover. The anomalous behaviour of volcanic-ash soils was attributed to slow mineralization and the sampling of soils at different times of year without full knowledge of the large and highly dynamic microbial biomass P pool which is predominantly diesters.

Keywords

31P NMR Diesters Monoesters Organic phosphorus Phytate 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. McDowell
    • 1
  • L. M. Condron
    • 2
  • I. Stewart
    • 3
  • V. Cave
    • 1
  1. 1.Invermay Agricultural CentreAgResearch LtdMosgielNew Zealand
  2. 2.Agriculture and Life SciencesLincoln UniversityCanterburyNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

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