International Journal of Fracture

, Volume 205, Issue 1, pp 37–56 | Cite as

Investigation of viscoelastic fracture fields in asphalt mixtures using digital image correlation

  • Berangere Doll
  • Hasan Ozer
  • Jose J. Rivera-Perez
  • Imad L. Al-Qadi
  • John Lambros
Original Paper


In this work we have studied the fracture behavior of asphalt mixtures, a heterogeneous mix of hard aggregates (usually in the form of crushed quarried rock) with a petroleum based asphalt binder, used in paving applications. Specifically, we studied the dependence of asphalt mixes’ fracture response on loading rate, temperature, and recycled content—the latter used primarily to replace virgin materials like aggregates and binder. Fracture tests were conducted on semi-circular bend edge cracked specimens obtained from mixes with different compositions, and the fracture event was recorded with a camera to allow for digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. DIC, with a spatial resolution of about 40 \(\upmu \)m/pixel, measured the far-field strain and displacement fields developing around a preexisting notch tip. Our focus here is on characterizing the material behavior by quantifying its viscoelastic response and fracture properties. The elastic–viscoelastic correspondence principle was used to extract viscous and elastic components from the full-field DIC-measured strain and displacement fields. Various energy dissipation mechanisms other than the fracture itself were evaluated. Stress–strain response and energy dissipated in the far-field regions were quantified. The pseudo-elastic stress intensity factor was then used to study the fracture properties, and quantify the effects on fracture properties of loading rate, temperature, and recycled content in the binder. It was seen that the viscoelastic characteristics of the material were a dominant factor in the material behavior obtained at room temperature. In general, the elastic component of the displacement was only up to about 30% of the total displacement, indicating a strong influence of viscoelasticity in this state. Loading rate, temperature and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) content all affected the viscous response by introducing more elastic response when loading rate or recycled content increased or when temperature decreased. It became clear from these macroscopic measurements that the increase of RAS content considerably embrittles the material producing less viscous effects and less energy dissipated in the far-field, almost comparable to reductions associated with the loading rate increase (from 6.25 to 50 mm/min) or the temperature change (\(-12\) to \(25\,{^{\circ }}\)C).


Asphalt concrete mixtures Viscoelasticity Recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) Digital image correlation (DIC) Fracture Semi-circular bend (SCB) 



Support for this study was provided by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) as part of the ongoing ICT R27-128 research project. The authors would like to acknowledge the members of IDOT Technical Review Panel (TRP) for their useful advice at different stages of this research. The contents of this paper reflect the views of the authors who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. This paper does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. We would also like to thank Ahmad El Khatib, Punit Singhvi, Tamim Khan for their help with preparing and characterizing asphalt concrete samples, and Erman Gungor for providing some Matlab codes. BD and JL would also like to thank the Institut Supérieur de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace (ISAE – Supaero) in France which gave BD the opportunity to join the University of Illinois as part of a dual degree program.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berangere Doll
    • 1
  • Hasan Ozer
    • 2
  • Jose J. Rivera-Perez
    • 2
  • Imad L. Al-Qadi
    • 2
  • John Lambros
    • 1
  1. 1.Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

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