Relational Structures of Fundamental Theories


General relativity and quantum mechanics have both revealed the relativity of certain notions that were previously thought to be absolute. I clarify the precise sense in which these theories are relational, and I argue that the various aspects of relationality pertain to the same movement in the progress of physical theories.

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I thank the organisers of the QISS conference in Hong Kong in January 2020 for giving me the opportunity to deepen and present the ideas contained in this paper. This publication was made possible through the support of the ID# 61466 Grant from the John Templeton Foundation, as part of the Quantum Information Structure of Spacetime (QISS) project ( The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.

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Correspondence to Pierre Martin-Dussaud.

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Martin-Dussaud, P. Relational Structures of Fundamental Theories. Found Phys 51, 24 (2021).

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  • General relativity
  • Relational quantum mechanics
  • Relativity
  • Relationality