Foundations of Physics

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 201–215 | Cite as

Extending the Redshift-Distance Relation in Cosmological General Relativity to Higher Redshifts

  • John G. HartnettEmail author


The redshift-distance modulus relation, the Hubble Diagram, derived from Cosmological General Relativity has been extended to arbitrarily large redshifts. Numerical methods were employed and a density function was found that results in a valid solution of the field equations at all redshifts. The extension has been compared to 302 type Ia supernova data as well as to 69 Gamma-ray burst data. The latter however do not truly represent a ‘standard candle’ as the derived distance moduli are not independent of the cosmology used. Nevertheless the analysis shows a good fit can be achieved without the need to assume the existence of dark matter.

The Carmelian theory is also shown to describe a universe that is always spatially flat. This results from the underlying assumption of the energy density of a cosmological constant ΩΛ=1, the result of vacuum energy. The curvature of the universe is described by a spacevelocity metric where the energy content of the curvature at any epoch is Ω K Λ−Ω=1−Ω, where Ω is the matter density of the universe. Hence the total density is always Ω K +Ω=1.


Cosmological General Relativity High redshift type Ia supernovae Gamma-ray burst Dark matter Distance modulus 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PhysicsUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

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